· AA = Always Afloat
· AAAA = Always Accessible Always Afloat
· AARA = Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area
· ABT = About
· ADCOM = Address Commission
· AFSPS = Arrival First Sea Pilot Station (Norway)
· AFFREIGHTMENT = The hiring of a ship in whole or part
· AFT = At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
· AGW = All Going Well
· AHL = Australian Hold Ladders
· ANTHAM = Antwerp-Hamburg Range
· APS = Arrival Pilot Station
· ARAG = Amsterdam-Rotterdam--Antwerp-Ghent Range
· A/S = Alongside
· ATDNSHINC = Any Time Day or Night Sundays and Holidays Included
· ATUTC = Actual Times Used to Count
· BAF = Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
· BALLAST = Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo.
· BAREBOAT CHTR = Bareboat Charter Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only.
· BBB = Before Breaking Bulk
· BDI = Both Dates Inclusive
· BENDS = Both Ends (Load & Discharge Ports)
· BI = Both Inclusive
· BIMCO = The Baltic and International Maritime Council
· BL (1) = Bale
· BL (2) = (Bill of Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
· BM = Beam
· BEAM = The maximum breadth of a ship
· BOB = Bunker on Board
· BOFFER = Best Offer
· BROB = Bunkers Remaining on Board
· BSS = Basis
· BSS 1/1 = Basis 1 Port to 1 Port
· BT = Berth Terms
· BUNDLING = This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is a very flexible description; a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 ton) fork lift truck.
· BUNKERS = Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
· BWAD = Brackish Water Arrival Draft
· CBM = Cubic Meter
· CBFT (or CFT) = Cubic Feet
· CFR (or C&F) = Cost and Freight
· CHOPT = Charterers Option
· CHTRS = Charterers
· CIF = Cost, Insurance & Freight. Seller pays all these costs to a nominated port or place of discharge.
· COA = Contract of Affreightment Owners agree to accept a cost per revenue ton for cargo carried on a specific number of voyages.
· COACP = Contract of Affreightment Charter Party
· COB = Close of Business
· COD = Cash On Delivery
· COGSA = Carriage of Goods by Sea Act
· CONS = Consumption
· COP = Custom Of Port
· CP (or C/P) = Charter Party
· CPD = Charterers Pay Dues
· CPT = Carriage Paid To
· CQD = Customary Quick Dispatch
· CROB = Cargo Remaining on Board
· CRN = Crane
· CST = Centistoke
· CTR = Container Fitted
· DAPS = Days all Purposes (Total days for loading & discharging)
· DDU = Delivered Duty unpaid.
· DDP = Delivered Duty Paid.
· DEM = Demurrage
· DESP = Dispatch
· DET = Detention
· DHDATSBE = Dispatch Half Demurrage on Actual Time Saved Both Ends DHDWTSBE = Dispatch Half Demurrage on Working Time Saved Both Ends
· DISCH = Discharge
· DK = Deck
· DLOSP = Dropping Last Outwards Sea Pilot (Norway)
· DO = Diesel Oil
· DOLSP = Dropping Off Last Sea Pilot (Norway)
· DOP = Dropping Outward Pilot
· DOT = Department of Transport
· DNRSAOCLONL = Discountless and Non-Returnable Ship and/or Cargo Lost or Not Lost
· DRAFT = Depth to which a ship is immersed in water. The depth varies according to the design of the ship and will be greater or lesser depending not only on the weight of the ship and everything on board, but also on the density of the water in which the ship is lying.
· DRK = Derrick
· DUNNAGE = Materials of various types, often timber or matting, placed among the cargo for separation, and hence protection from damage, for ventilation and, in the case of certain cargoes, to provide space in which the forks of a lift truck may be inserted.
· DWAT (or DWT) = Deadweight. Weight of cargo, stores and water, i.e. the difference between lightship and loaded displacement.
· EC = East Coast
· EIU = Even if Used
· ELVENT = Electric Ventilation
· ETA = Estimated Time of Arrival
· ETC = Estimated Time of Completion
· ETD = Estimated Time of Departure
· ETS = Estimated Time of Sailing
· EXW = Ex Works
· FAS = Free Alongside Ship. Seller delivers goods to appropriate dock or terminal at port of embarkation and buyer covers costs and risks of loading.
· FD = Free of Dispatch
· FDD = Freight Demurrage Deadfreight
· FDIS = Free Discharge
· FEU = Forty foot container equivalency unit Standard 40' Container
· FHEX = Fridays/Holidays Excluded
· FHINC = Fridays/Holidays Included
· FILO = Free In/Liner Out. Seafreight with which the shipper pays load costs and the = carrier pays for discharge costs.
· FIO = Free In/Out. Freight booked FIO includes the sea freight, but no loading/discharging costs, i.e. the charterer pays for cost of loading and discharging cargo.
· FIOS = Free In/Out Stowed. As per FIO, but includes stowage costs.
· FIOT = Free In/Out and Trimmed. As per FIOS but includes trimming the leveling of bulk cargoes
· FIOSLSD = Free In/Out Stowed, Lashed, Secured and Dunnaged. As per FIO, but includes cost of lashing securing and dunnaging cargo to Masters satisfaction.
· FIOST = Free In/Out and Trimmed. Charterer pays for cost of loading/discharging cargo, including stowage and trimming.
· FIT = Free In Trimmed
· FIW = Free In Wagon
· FIXING = Chartering a Vessel
· FLT = Full Liner Terms Shipowner pays to load and discharge the cargo
· FMC = Federal Maritime Commission US government agency
· FMS = Fathoms = 6 feet
· FO (IFO) = Fuel Oil/Intermediate FO
· FOB = Free on Board. Seller sees the goods "over the ship's rail" on to the ship which is arranged and paid for by the buyer
· FOFFER = Firm Offer
· FOG = For Our Guidance
· FOQ = Free On Quay
· FOR = Free On Rail
· FORCE MAJEURE = Clause limiting responsibilities of the charterers, shippers and receivers due to events beyond their control.
· FOT = Free On Truck
· FOW (1) = First Open Water
· FOW (2) = Free On Wharf
· FREE OUT = Free of discharge costs to Owners
· FWAD = Fresh Water Arrival Draft
· FWDD = Fresh Water Departure Draft
· FYG = For Your Guidance
· FYI = For Your Information
· GA = General Average
· GLS = Gearless
· GNCN = Gencon a standard BIMCO charter party form
· GN (or GR) = Grain (capacity)
· GO = Gas Oil
· GRD = Geared
· GRT = Gross Registered Tonnage
· GSB = Good Safe Berth
· GSP = Good Safe Port
· GTEE = Guarantee
· 2H = Second Half
· HA = Hatch
· HDWTS = Half Dispatch Working Time Saved
· HMS = Heavy Metal Scrap
· HO = Hold
· HW = High Water
· IMDG = International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
· IMO = International Maritime Organization
· IND = Indication
· INTERMODAL = Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e. sea, road, rail and air within a single journey.
· ITF = International Transport Federation international body that regulates crewing of ships
· IU = If Used
· IUATUTC = If Used, Actual Time Used To Count
· IUHATUTC = If Used, Half Actual Time Used To Count
· IWL = Institute Warranty Limits
· LANE METER = A method of measuring the space capacity of Ro/Ro ships whereby each unit of space (Linear Meter) is represented by an area of deck 1.0 meter in length x 2.0 meters in width.
· LASH (1) = To hold goods in position by use of Ropes, Wires, Chains or Straps etc.
· LASH (2) = Lighter Aboard Ship a vessel that loads small barges direct from the water
· LAT = Latitude
· LOA = Length Overall of the vessel
· LOW = Last Open Water
· LS (or LUMPS) = Lumpsum
· LSD = Lashed Secured Dunnaged
· LT = Liner Terms
· LW = Low Water
· LYCN = Laycan (Layday Canceling Date)
· MB = Merchant Broker
· MDO (DO) = Marine Diesel Oil
· MIN/MAX = Minimum/Maximum (cargo quantity)
· MOLCHOPT = More or Less Charterers Option
· MOLOO = More or Less Owners Option
· MT = Metric Ton (i.e. 1,000 kilos / 2204.6lbs)
· M/V = Motor Vessel
· NAABSA = Not Always Afloat But Safely Aground
· NCB = National Cargo Bureau
· NESTING = Implies that cargo is presented stacked in the contour of similarly shaped cargo, it may be likened to a stack of plates.
· NON-REVERSIBLE = (Detention). If loading completed sooner than expected, then saved days will not be added to discharge time allowed.
· NOR = Notice of Readiness
· NRT = Net Registered Tonnage
· NYPE = New York Produce Exchange
· OO = Owners Option
· OSH = Open Shelter Deck
· OWS = Owners
· PASTUS = Past Us
· PC = Period of Charter
· PCGO = Part Cargo
· PCT = Percent
· PDPR = Per Day Pro Rata
· PERDIEM = Per Diem = By the Day
· PHPD = Per Hatch Per Day
· PRATIQUE = License or permission to use a port
· RCVR = Receivers
· REVERSIBLE (Detention) = If loading completed sooner than expected at load port, then days saved can be added to discharge operations.
· ROB = Remaining On Board
· RT = Revenue Ton (i.e. 1.0 metric Ton or 1.0 cubic meter, whichever is greater). The overall RT is calculated on a line by line basis of the Packing List using the largest amount. The overall freight liability is calculated on the total RT amount, multiplied by the freight rate.
· SATPM = Saturday P.M.
· SB = Safe Berth
· SD (or SID) = Single Decker
· SEAFREIGHT = Costs charged for transporting goods over the sea. This does not cover any haulage or loading/discharging costs but the sea transport only.
· SELFD = Self Discharging
· SF = Stowage factor. Cubic space occupied by one ton (2,240 lbs/1,000 kgs) of cargo.
· SHINC = Sundays/Holidays Included
· SHEX = Sundays/Holidays Excluded
· SKIDS = Are bearers (timber or steel) positioned under cargo to enable fork lift handling at port, and for ease of rigging and lashing on board ship.
· SL = Bale (capacity)
· SOC = Shipper Owned Container
· SOF = Statement Of Facts
· SP = Safe Port
· SRBL = Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading
· SSHEX (or SATSHEX) = Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded
· SSHINC = Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included
· (or SATSHINC)
· STABILITY = It is paramount that a vessel is stable in all respects at all times. When cargo is loaded / discharged, the stability is monitored by a computer, which takes into account the weight and position of cargo within the vessel.
· STARBOARD = Right side of a ship when facing the bow
· STEM = Subject To Enough Merchandise (Availability of Cargo)
· STERN = The aft part of a ship
· SUB = Subject (to)
· SUPERCARGO = Person employed by a ship owner, shipping company, charterer of a ship or shipper of goods to supervise cargo handling operations. Often called a port captain.
· SWAD = Salt Water Arrival Draft
· SWDD = Salt Water Departure Draft
· TC = Time Charter Owners agree to hire a particular ship for a set length of time
· TEU = Twenty Foot Equivalency Unit Standard 20' Container
· TTL = Total
· TW = Tween Decker
· USC = Unless Sooner Commenced
· UU = Unless Used
· UUIUATUTC = Unless Used If Used Actual Time Used To Count
· VPD = Vessel Pays Dues
· WCCON = Whether Customs Cleared Or Not
· WIBON = Whether In Berth Or Not
· WIFPON = Whether In Free Pratique or not
· WIPON = Whether In Port Or Not
· WLTOHC (distance) Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming
· WOG = Without Guarantee
· WPD = Weather Permitting Day
· WWD = Weather Working Day
· WRIC = Wire Rods In Coils
· WWR = When, Where Ready
· WWWW = Wibon, Wccon, Wifpon, Wipon
· YAR = York Antwerp Rules
All Chartering Abbreviations Terms & Definitions:
MEG Middle East Gulf
AG Arabian Gulf
PG Persian Gulf
UKC United Kingdom to Continent Range
Cont Continent, meaning the land mass of North West Europe
Med Mediterranean Sea
WAFR West Africa
SAFR South Africa
USG US ports within the Gulf of Mexico, ie Houston, New Orleans
USAC United States Atlantic Coast, same as USEC
USWC United States West Coast, Vancouver is sometimes iincluded
t/a trans-Atlantic, usually specific to Cont/USAC voyages with mogas (motor
Straits Strait of Malacca
SKAW Northern point of Denmark, somewhat of a separation between point the
north Sea and the Baltic
NOPAC Northern Pacific, implies USWC-Vancouver region
NCCT Non-Cooperative Countries and Territories
PASS Passero, southern tip of Sicily
RV Round Voyage
SKAW Northern point of Denmark, somewhat separates North Sea and Baltic
SK South Korea
Baltic Exchange Handysize Index
HS1 Skaw-Passero trip to Rio de Janeiro-Recalada
HS2 Skaw-Passero trip to Boston-Galveston
HS3 Rio de Janeiro-Recalada trip to Skaw-Passero
HS4 US Gulf trip via US Gulf or north coast South America to Skaw-Passero
HS5 South East Asia trip via Australia to Singapore-Japan
HS6 South Korea-Japan trip via North Pacific to Singapore-Japan
Baltic Exchange Supramax Index
S1A Antwerp - Skaw trip to Singapore-Japan
S1B Canakkale trip to Singapore-Japan
S2 South Korea –Japan, one Australian or Pacific round voyage
S3 South Korea-Japan trip to Skaw-Gibraltar
S4A US Gulf trip to Skaw-Passero
S4B Skaw-Passero trip to US Gulf
S5 West Africa trip via east coast South America to Singapore-Japan
S9 West Africa trip via east coast South America to Skaw-Passero
Baltic Exchange Supramax - Asia (BES Asia)
S8 China trip via Indonesia to east coast India
S10 North China via Indonesia to South China
S11 Mid China, Australian or trans pacific round voyage
Baltic Exchange Panamax Index (BPI)
P1A_03 Skaw-Gibraltar trans atlantic round voyage
P2A_03 Skaw-Gibraltar trip to Taiwan-Japan
P3A_03 Japan–South Korea trans pacific round voyage
P4_03 Japan-South Korea trip to Skaw Passero
P3A-IV Newcastle to Qingdao
P5 South China, one Indonesian round voyage
Baltic Exchange Capesize Index (BCI_2014)
C2 Tubarao to Rotterdam (long tons)
C3 Tubarao to Qingdao
C4 Richards Bay to Rotterdam
C5 West Australia to Qingdao
C7 Bolivar to Rotterdam
C15 Richards Bay to Fangcheng
C8_14 Gibraltar/Hamburg trans atlantic round voyage
C9_14 Continent/Mediterranean trip China-Japan
C10_14 China-Japan trans pacific round voyage
C14 China-Brazil round voyage
C16 Revised backhaul
C17 TRIAL - Saldanha Bay to Qingdao
C8_03 Gibraltar-Hamburg trans atlantic round voyage
C9_03 Continent-Mediterranean trip to China-Japan
C10_03 China-Japan trans pacific round voyage
C11_03 China-Japan trip to Continent or Passero
Dry Cargo Bulk Carriers
Handysize: 5,000 up to 35,000 deadweight ships
Handymax: 40,000 up to 50,000 deadweight ships
Supramax: 53,000 up to 59,000 deadweight ships
Panamax: 60,000 up to 89,000 deadweight ships (dry and wet)
Capesize: 120,000 up to 350,000 deadweight ships (dry and wet)
Wet Cargo Bulk Carriers (Tankers)
Aframax: 80,000 up to 120,000 deadweight tanker
Suezmax: 120,000 up to 200,000 deadweight tanker
VLCC (Very large crude carrier): 200,000 up to 320,000 deadweight tankers
ULCC (Ultra large crude carrier): 320,000 up to 550,000 deadweight tankers
1 / 2 SP One or two safe port(s).
1 OPT 1 One year, option another one year ( used on Time Charter period)
A & CP Anchors and chains proved.
A (Alpha) Diver below (when stationary); I am undergoing a speed trial
A.G. Arabian Gulf (also refered to as P.G. - Persian Gulf)
A.P OR A/P
A/C (a/c) (acct) Account(s); Air Changes
A/E (a/e) Accept/ Except (used in chartering counter-offer)
a/f Also for (referring to ports to be touched by the ship).
Aa (AA) Always afloat.
AAAA Always afloat and (always) accessible.
AALA American Association for Laboratory Accreditation
AARA Amsterdam-Antwerp-Rotterdam Area.
AASO Association of American Ship Owners
AB Above bridges.
AB (ABS) American Bureau of Shipping - American (US) Ship Classification Society. Under the provisions of the US Load-Line Act - it has the authority to assign load lines to vessels registered in the US and other countries.
AB Able seamen
Abandoned Well An oil well where production has ceased.
ABS American Bureau of Shipping- American classification society.
ABS, AB American Bureau Of Shipping--American Classification Society--- As they many of them,controlled by various sectors(countries) of the shipping.They are independent non-profit making organisations charged to undertake supervision of the construction and maintenance, and supply information about the reliablility of merchant vessels(and other structures and equipment. e.g. Oil field industry)
Accommodation Unit/Floatel Normally a semi submersible or jack up (See Jack up), equipped with cabins, catering facilities and office space for up to 800 persons. The installation is normally used for the accommodation and catering for personnel constructing or operating a fixed production platform. An accommodation unit may also be equipped with workshops and/or storage facilities.
ACFN American Committee for Flags of Necessity
ACGFO Any Commercial Grade of Fuel Oil
Acid Gas Gas with pollutants causing a low pH-value. Creates corrosion problems.
Acidizing Te injection of hydrochloric acid into the production zone in order to stimulate greater yield. The acid corrodes the sedimentary partitions, thereby increasing permeability.
ACOT Advisory Committee on Offshore Technology
ACP Area Contingency Plan
ACP. African, Caribbean, Pacific countries.
ACS American Chemicals Society
Ad val. Ad Valorem (duty).
AD Air Draft - correctly used, air draft refers to the distance from the vessel's waterline to the top of the highest mast in an unladen condition. Important to determine whether the vessel can pass under fixed bridges. (Air draft is also used to refer to the distance from the vessel's light waterline to the top of the hatch coming. This dimension must be known to determine whether the vessel will fit under the fixed shore loading or discharging appliance.)
ADA; A/D/A; (a/d/a) e.g ADA/WOG. All Details About, All dtls abt, Eg. All details about/without owners guarantee. In the vessel's Description
ADB African/Asian Development Bank
ADCOM/Addcomm. Address commission.
ADEC Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation
ADR Alternative Dispute Resolution - a relatively new innovation whose use has increased in the last decade in response to a general rise in litigation in many jurisdictions and the thereby escalating cost associated therewith, as well as the increased dissatisfaction with the legal process itself. The ADR is a tool designed as a supplement to a given judicial system to provide parties of otherwise good and long term working relationship with a cheaper and in most cases less adversial alternative to lengthy court hearings and arbitrations.
ADV. (adv) Advise
Aerated Mud Drilling mud mixed with oxygen to increase efficiency.
AF. Advance freight.
AFA(afa); AF "A"(af "a") All Figures About ("About"). In the vessel's Description
AFCSPS Arrival first compulory sea pilot station.
AFMT(aftm) After fixing main terms
AFRA Average Freight Rate Assessment - average costs for the freight of oil with tankships. Calculated by the World scale Association in London. based on an ongoing registration of all freight rates at particular points in time.
AFRAMAX Tankers of about 70/110,000 DWT
Aframax American Freight Rate Association - approximately 80,000 - 105,000 dwt - term for a tank ship of standard size.
AFRASEC Afro-Asian Organization for Economic Cooperation
AFSPS Arrival First Sea Piolt Station
AFT At or towards the stern or rear of a ship
AFTA Asian Free Trade Area (See ASEAN).
After peak Tank.
AFTRN (aftrn Afternoon.
AG Arabian Gulf - also called PG - Persian Gulf.
Agent / Ship's Agent Person looking after the interests of a ship while in port. Duties include organizing pilotage, towage and berth for the ship, collecting freight and signing bills of lading
AGRIPODS Agricultural products.
AGS Annual General Survey
AGW WP All going well weather permitting.
Ah (AH) After hatch
AH Antwerp Hamburg range
AH. Range of ports between and including Antwerp and Hamburg.
AhL. Australian hold ladders.
AHT Anchor handling Tug - vessel employed in the offshore field moving anchors and performing towing operations.
AHTS AHT which is also a combined supply vessel.
AID Agency for International Development - US organization for civilian aid prograMmes.
AIMS American Institute of Merchant Shipping - the American ship-owners' association for the major part of the privately owned tonnage.
AIS Automatic Identification System
ALADI Latin-American Integration Association (11 members).
ALAMAP Association Latinamericano de Armadores - Latin-American Ship-owners' Association (established in March 1963).
ALU-TUCP Philippine Seafarers' Union, member of TUCP (Trade Union Council of the Philippines).
AMA Association of Maritime Arbitrators, New York
AMOSUP Associated Marine Officers' and Seamen's Union of the Philippines - Filipino union for officers and crew.
AMPD Average Most Probable Discharge
AMS Automated Manifest System (For US Department of Agriculture Entry Processing Procedures for US ports)
AMVER Automatic Mutual-Assistance Vessel Rescue System - American warning system for international shipping.
AMWELSH Americanised welsh coal charter party for Coal Trade)
Anchor handling Tug AHT - ship carrying out tasks such as the placing or moving of anchors, as well as towing drilling installations and barges etc. May double as a supply vessel and is in such cases termed Anchor handling Tug/Supply (AHTS).
Anchor Piling Mooring point on the sea bed.
ANDES’ Pact Customs and tariffs union between Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia with common external customs’ tariffs.
Annular Blowout Preventer Safety valve during drilling operations. Consists of rubber gasket stopping the flow of mud outside the drill string.
Annulus The distance between the drill string and the casing or the wall of the drilling hole.
ANPRM Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
ANS Alaskan North Slope (crude oil)
ANSI American National Standard Institute
ANTHAM Antwerp-Hamburg Range
AOB As On Board
AODC Association of Offshore Diving Contractors
AOG Act of God.
AOSC Assistant On-Scene Coordinator (U.S. Coast Guard)
AP Aft perpendicular (of ship); after peak; all purposes; additional premium.
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (18 members).
API GRAVITY Petroleum industry expression for density of petroleum liquid expressed in API units. - API gravity is obtained by means of simultaneous hydrometer/temperature readings, equated to, and generally expressed at 60ÂºF. The relative density to API gravity relation is: API gravity at 60ÂºF = 141.5 divided by relative density 60ÂºF minus 131.5.
API American Petroleum Institute - Founded in 1919, the first oil trade association to include all branches of the petroleum industry
APICOM Association of Petroleum Industry Cooperative Managers
APS (aps) Arrival Pilot Station or At Pilot Station.
APS Arrival Pilot Station - Signifies a location, on arrival at which vessel will deliver on to a time-charter. Of advantage to a ship owner when compared with TIP, which see.
APT After Peak Tank
AR . Antwerp – Rotterdam range
AR / ATRS American Tanker Rate Schedule-Revised - A Standards of reference published by a group of American tanker brokers and expressed in dollars and cents for thousands of possible voyages. Commonly used for U.S. coast wise voyages.
ARA Antwerp-Rotterdam-Amsterdam, often used as destination specification.
ARAG. Amsterdam-Rotterdam--Antwerp-Gent Range
Arbitration A method of settling disputes by one or more arbitrators. Quicker and cheaper than taking a case to court.
ARH Antwerp – Rotterdam – Hamburg range.
ARHB Antwerp – Rotterdam – Hamburg – Bremen range.
ARPA Automatic Radar Plotting Aid
ART Alternative Response Technology
Articulated Platform/ Oscillating Platform An offshore structure fastened to the sea bed by means of an articulated hinge, stabilized by buoyancy elements near the surface. Usually used in connection with loading buoys and flare towers.
ASA Always safe(ly) afloat.
ASAP (asap) As soon as possible.
ASBA Association of Ship Brokers and Agents (U.S.A., Inc.), New York
ASEAN Association of South East Asian Nations - Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore.
ASEM Summit Meeting between Asian and European nations.
ASF Asian Ship-owners' Forum - ship-owners' association for East Asia and Oceania.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASO Arbeidsgiverforeningen for Skip og Offshorefartoyer - The Employers' Organization for Ships and Offshore Installations (Oslo).
AST Atlantic Strike Team (U.S. Coast Guard)
ASTF Alaska Science and Technology Foundation
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials
ATA Actual Time of arrival
ATDN Any Time Day or Night
ATDNSHINC Any Time Day/Night Sundays and Holidays included.
ATDON (atdon) At day or night
ATN Aids to Navigation
ATRS . American Tank Rate Schedule.
ATRS / AR See AR above
ATS All Time Saved
ATS. (ats) Actual time saved or All time saved.
ATSB All Time Saved Both ends
ATSB/ATSBE All time saved both ends.
ATSDO All time saved discharging only.
ATUTC Actual Times Used to Count
AUTOMATIC SAMPLER A device installed in a flow, automatically controlled so as to extract a representative sample of the flow.
AUTOMATIC TANK GAUGE An instrument capable of indicating the level of product from a location remote to the Manual gauge site
AVCAT Aviation Category--High flashpoint aviation fuel
AWES Association of Western European Shipbuilders
AWH Available workable hatches.
AWIWL (awiwl) Always Within Institute Warranty Limits.
AWO American Waterways Operators
AWRI Additional War Risk Insurance
AWTSBE All working time saved both ends.
AWTSDO All working time saved discharging only.
AWTSLO All working time saved loading only.
B (Bl) Bale capacity; bale; ballast.
B (Bravo) I am taking on or discharging explosives (Dangerous Cargo)
B S S 1/1; bss 1/1. Basis 1 port to 1 port
B TO B Both to blame collision Clause
B.H.(range) Range of ports between and including Bordeaux & Hamburg
B.N.A. British North America.
b.o Buyer’s option; broker’s order.
B.P.(bp/b.p.) Between perpendiculars; boiling point (gases)
B.S Boiler survey; bunker surcharge.
B.S. & W Bottom (or base) sediment and water.
B/D Barrels per Day
B/E Break even; (customs) bill of entry; bill of exchange.
B/E (Bends) (BENDS) Both ends.(i.e. Load & Discharge Ports)
B/G Bank Gurantee.
b/h Barrels per hour.
B/L Bill of Ladinq Document issued by a shipowner to a shipper of goods. It serves as a receipt for the goods, evidence of the contract of carriage and document of title. As a receipt it contains the description and quantity of the goods as well as suitable notations if the goods are not in apparent good condition when received by the ship. As evidence of the contract of carriage, the Bill of Lading contains the terms and conditions of the contract or, where the contract is represented by a Charter-Party, a reference to the Charter-Party As a document of title, the "to order" Bill of Lading is used by a third party to take delivery of the goods from a ship.
B/L Abbreviation for “Bill of Lading.”
B/L Bills of Lading (Blading) The basic document between a shipper and a carrier and a shipper and a consignee. It represents the contract of carriage and defines the terms and conditions of carriage. It is the final receipt from the carrier for the goods shown on it and for the condition of the goods. It describes the nature, quantity and weight of the cargo carried. It is also the document of title of the goods shown.
B/L Numbers: • U.S. Customs’ standardized B/L numbering format to facilitate elec-tronic communications and to make each B/L number unique.
B/L Terms & Conditions: • the fine print on B/L; defines what the carrier can and can-not do, including the carrier’s liabilities and contractual agreements.
B/L’s Status:• represents whether the bill of lading has been input, rated, reconciled, printed, or released to the customer.17
B/L’s Type: • refers to the type of B/L being issued. Some examples are: a Memo (ME), Original (OBL), Non–negotiable, Corrected (CBL) or Amended (AM) B/L.
B/N Booking Note Document containing the terms and conditions of a contract between a shipper and a shipping line for the carriage of goods on a particular ship between specified ports or places.
B/N (b/n) Booking note.
B/O (b/o) Bulk/oil carrier.
B/R Bordeaux of Rouen.
B/S Bunker Surcharge Extra charge applied by shipping lines, or set by liner conferences on behalf of their members, to reflect fluctuations in the cost of bunkers. This surcharge is expressed either as an amount per freight ton or as a percentage of the freight. Also referred to as bunker adjustment factor (BAF), or fuel oil surcharge (FOS), or fuel adjustment factor (FAF).
BA/BB; BA Buenos Aires/Bahia Blanca Range; British Airways
BACAT Barge aboard catamaran
Back to Back Charter Contract between a charterer and a subcharterer whose terms and conditions are identical to the contract, known as the head charter, between the charterer and the shipowner. The purpose of agreeing identical terms is to ensure that any money for which the charterer may be liable to in the subcharter, for example despatch money, is recoverable from the shipowner.
Backfreight Freight payable to a shipowner for the carriage of goods back to the port of loading or to another convenient port when the vessel is unable to reach the port of destination because of an excepted peril or because the consignee fails to take delivery of The goods or provide instructions for their disposal.
Backhaul To haul a shipment back over part of a route it has traveled.
BAF Bunker Adjustment Factor. A Fuel Surcharge expressed as a percentage added or subtracted from the freight amount reflecting the movement in the market place price for bunkers.
BAF Abbreviation for “Bunker Adjustment Factor.” Used to compensate steamship lines for fluctuating fuel costs. Sometimes called “Fuel Adjustment Factor” or FAF.
Bale / Bale Capacity Total cubic capacity of a ship's holds available for the carriage of solid cargo which is not capable of filling the spaces between the ship's frames. It is expressed in cubic feet or cubic meters. Where a cargo is free flowing and is capable of filling the spaces between the ship's frames, the corresponding cubic capacity is known as the grain or grain capacity.
Ballast Sea water taken into a vessel's tanks in order to submerge the vessel to proper trim. Proper trim is necessary in order to safely navigate the vessel in light condition. Ballast can be taken into cargo tanks, double bottoms, fore and aft peak tanks and/or segregated ballast tanks (SBT)
BALLAST Heavy weight, often sea water, necessary for the stability and safety of a ship which is not carrying cargo.
Balloon Freight Light, bulky articles.
Baltic Mercantile & Shipping Exchange Institution, located in London, England, also known as the Baltic Exchange or simply the Baltic, whose main function is to provide facilities for the chartering of ships by its members: chartering agents, acting on behalf of charterers, negotiate with shipbrokers who represent shipowners on the "floor" of the Baltic. Other activities include air chartering, futures trading and sale and purchase of ships.
Baltime General purpose Time Charter Party published by BIMCO.
Bank Guarantee Guarantee issued by a bank to a carrier to be used in lieu of lost or misplaced original negotiable bill of lading.
BAP Best Available Protection
Bar (brl);BBL or bbl Barrels.
Bareboat Charter-Party (Demise C/P) Contract for the hire of an empty ship. All operating costs are covered by the charterer.
BAREBOAT CHTR Bareboat Charter Owners lease a specific ship and control its technical management and commercial operations only.
Bareboat The hiring or leasing of a vessel from one company to another (the charterer), which provides crew, bunkers, stores, etc. and pays all operating costs.
Barecon 'A' Standard bareboat Charter-Party published by BIMCO.
Barecon 'B' Standard bareboat Charter-Party used for newbuildings financed by mortgage, published by BIMCO.
BARRATRY Fraudulent of Master/Crew against ship/cargo
Barratry An act committed by the master or mariners of a vessel, for some unlawful or fraudulent purpose, contrary to their duty to the owners, whereby the latter sustain injury. It may include negligence, if so gross as to evidence fraud.
Barrel (BBL)A term of measure referring to 42 gallons of liquid at 600 degrees.
Barrel Measure for oil. There are 7.1 barrels of oil in one ton. Each barrel is approximately 159 litres. Many abbreviations: b, bbl, bar. Sometimes written with capital letters. Barrels per day (Bd or b/d) specifies the production rate per day.
Base Cargo Minimum quantity of cargo required by a shipping line to make it worthwhile to call at a particular port of loading.
Base Rate Basic rate of freight of a shipping line or liner conference onto which are added, or on which are calculated, the various surcharges such as the currency adjustment factor or bunker surcharge.
Base Rate A tariff term referring to ocean rate less accessorial charges, or simply the base tariff rate.
BB Abbreviation for Ballast Bonus: Special payment above the Chartering price when the ship has to sail a long way on ballast to reach the loading port. Bareboat: Method of chartering of the ship leaving the charterer with almost all the responsibilities of the owner.
BB Bahia Blanca ; Ballast Bonus A lump sum amount paid to a ship owner, usually as a reward (a bonus) for positioning the vessel at a certain place as a prerequisite for her delivery on to time-charter e.g.: for a ship ex-Mediterranean Sea, "delivering United States Gulf for a time-charter trip to the Far East at US$ 5,000 daily, plus a ballast bonus of US$ 100,000". Occasionally paid as a reward for accepting redelivery from time-charter in an unfavourable position. A Ballast Bonus may be nett (i.e. free of address commissions and brokerages) or gross (i.e.: subject to deduction of brokerage and address commission).
BB CGO Break Bulk Cargo.( ie General Cargo).
BB,BBHP Ballast bonus; bar bound; below bridges; bulbous bow; bareboat,bareboat hire Purchase
BBB Before Breaking Bulk freight to be paid, i.e. the money deposited into the shipping company's account, prior to discharging.
BC Bulk Carrier; British Columbia; British Channel.
BCH Code International code (IMO) for the construction and equipment of ships carrying dangerous chemicals in bulk
BCI Baltic Cape Index
BCM Distance from Bow to Center of Cargo Manifolds
BCO Abbreviation for “Beneficial Cargo Owner.” Refers to the importer of record, who physically takes possession of cargo at destination and does not act as a third party in the movement of such goods.
BCS (bcs) Because.
BD Bar draft ; Bundle
BD Bar draft, below deck.
BDI Both dates (days) inclusive (or included).
BDI Both Dates Inclusive
BDL (bdl) Bundle.
BEAM The maximum breadth of a ship
Beam The width of a ship.
Bearer of a Bill of Ladinq Person who tenders the Bill of Lading to the ship at the place of discharge in exchange for the goods.
BEAUFORT A measure of wind speed
BEI Banque Europenne d'Investissement The European Investment Bank.
Bell Diving Carrying out diving within a diving vessel, shaped like a bell.
Below Bridges: indicates agreement for a vessel to proceed to that section of a port or a river/canal that is "below bridges" in other words below the place(s) where height restrictions would prevent a vessel navigating beneath certain overhead obstructions. e.g.: "Vessel to discharge at one safe berth River Thames, Below Bridges".
Belt Line A switching railroad operating within a commercial area.
Benchmarking To compare someone or something with the best that can be achieved within a specified field.
Bends-Both Ends At both loading and discharging ports. This term is often used together with GSAAAAB (good safe always afloat always accessible berth), with OSP (one safe port), with OSB (one safe berth) and to qualify the prices of the bunkers on delivery and redelivery in a time charter. Also used to state agency determination (ex. Carrier's agents bends).
BENDS Boths Ends (ie At load and discharging port)
Beneficiary Entity to whom money is payable. The entity for whom a letter of credit is issued. The seller and the drawer of a draft.
BENELUX Belguim, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
Berth Charter Party Charter-Party in which a particular berth is nominated by the charterer. The time allowed for loading or discharging, as the case may be, does not start to count until the ship reaches the berth, unless berth is occupied in which case time starts counting when NOR is tendered.
Berth Standard of Average Cause Clause in a Charter-Party setting out the contribution to be made by the charterer to any claim for loss or damage to cargo for which the shipowner is liable. Bill of Lading to Order Bill of Lading which requires an endorsement by a consignee before goods can be delivered to him by the carrying ship. Also called a “to order Bill of Lading.'' BIMCO (The Baltic and International Maritime Council) Association whose main object is to promote and defend the interests of shipowners. It also has a membership of shipbrokers and has been responsible for contributing to the creation of a large number of Charter-Parties and other shipping documents.
Berth TermsShipped under rate that includes cost from end of ship’s tackle at load port to end of ship’s tackle at discharge port.
Bext Breadth extreme.
Beyond Used with reference to charges assessed for cargo movement past a line–haul terminating point.
BFC Balitimore Form C Berth Grain Charter Party
BFI Baltic Freight Index an index for bulk freight rates.
BFO Bunker fuel oil.
BGCP Berth Grain Charter Party
BGD (bgd) Bagged (i.e bagged product e.g Rice.
BH (B/H) bulkhead, Bill of health;
BH Bordeaux Hamburg Range
BHF Bulk harmless fertilizers.
Bhp (BHP) Brake horse power (oil engines).
BHP Brake Horse Power
Bi/Bl Both inclusive.
BIAC Business and Industry Advisory Committee OECD's advisory committee. Opposite to TUAC
BIBO Bulk in, bag out.
BICC Bureau International des Chambres de Commerce International information bureau for Chambers of Commerce
BIFA British International Freight Association
BIFFEX Baltic International Freight Futures Exchange (London) an exchange for the buying and selling of futures, based on the BFI
BIFFEX Baltic International Freight Futures Market
Bilateral A contract term meaning both parties agree to provide something for the other.
BILGE The lower internal part of the hull where the vertical sides meet the bottom. This term also applies to both the inside and the outside of the hull. The internal space can be the lower part of a ship's hold or the engine room and serves as a drainage area where accumulated water can run into and be pumped from.
Bill of Exchange In the United States, commonly known as a “Draft.” However, bill of exchange is the correct term.
Bill of Lading (B/L) Negotiable document issued by shipowner to shipper of goods. Contains terms and conditions of the contract
Bill of Lading (B/L) A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. It serves as a document of title, a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods.
Bill of Lading Port of Discharge Port where cargo is discharged from means of transport.
Bill of Sale Confirms the transfer of ownership of certain goods to another person in return for money paid or loaned.
Bill to Party Customer designated as party paying for services.
Billed Weight The weight shown in a waybill and freight bill, i.e, the invoiced weight.
Bills of lading are often made out to bearer.
BIMCO The Baltic and International Maritime Council, Copenhagen
Bimcosale Standard bill of sale published by BIMCO, used for the purchase of ships.
BIMCO The Baltic and International Maritime Council, the world’s largest private shipping organization.
BIS Bank for International Settlements (Basel)
BISCO British Iron and Steel Corporation
Bit Drill bit
BITT Cast steel heads serving as posts to which mooring lines and cables are secured on ships
BK Bar keel.
BL (1) Bale
BL (2) (Bill of Lading) A document signed by the carrier which acts as a receipt and evidence of title to the cargo.
• Amended B/L B/L requiring updates that do not change financial status; this is slightly different from corrected B/L.
• Canceled B/L B/L status; used to cancel a processed B/L; usually per shipper’s request; different from voided B/L.
• Clean B/L A B/L which bears no superimposed clause or notation which declares a defective condition of the goods and/or the packaging.
• Combined B/L B/L that covers cargo moving over various transports.
• Consolidated B/L B/L combined or consolidated from two or more B/L’s.
• Corrected B/L B/L requiring any update which results in money –or other financially related changes.
• Dirty B/L Bill of Lading with Captain's note of protest as to the condition of the cargo.
• Domestic B/L Non–negotiable B/L primarily containing routing details; usually used by truckers and freight forwarders.
• Duplicate B/L Another original Bill of Lading set if first set is lost. Also known as reis-sued B/L.
• Express B/L Non–negotiable B/L where there are no paper copies printed of origi¬nals.
• Freight B/L A contract of carriage between a shipper and forwarder (who is usually a NVOCC); a non–negotiable document.
• Government B/L (GBL) A bill of lading issued by the U.S. government.
• Hitchment B/L B/L covering parts of a shipment which are loaded at more than one location. Hitchment B/L usually consists of two parts, hitchment and hitchment memo. The hitchment portion usually covers the majority of a divided shipment and carries the entire revenue.
• House B/L B/L issued by a freight forwarder or consolidator covering a single shipment containing the names, addresses and specific description of the goods shipped.
• Intermodal B/L B/L covering cargo moving via multimodal means. Also known as Combined Transport B/L, or Multimodal B/L.
• Long Form B/L B/L form with all Terms & Conditions written on it.Most B/L’s are short form which incorporate the long form clauses by reference.
• Memo B/L Unfreighted B/L with no charges listed.
• Military B/L B/L issued by the U.S. military; also known as GBL, or Form DD1252.18
• Negotiable B/L The B/L is a title document to the goods, issued “to the order of” a party, usually the shipper, whose endorsement is required to effect is negotiation.Thus, a shipper’s order (negotiable) B/L can be bought, sold, or traded while goods are in transit and is commonly used for letter–of–credit transactions. The buyer must submit the origi-nal B/L to the carrier in order to take possession of the goods.
• Non–Negotiable B/L See Straight B/L. Sometimes means a file copy of a B/L.
• Onboard B/L B/L validated at the time of loading to transport. Onboard Air, Box¬car, Container, Rail, Truck and Vessel are the most common types.
• Optional Discharge B/L B/L covering cargo with more than one discharge point op¬tion possibility.
• Order B/L See Negotiable B/L.
• Original B/L The part of the B/L set that has value, especially when negotiable; rest of set are only informational file copies. Abbreviated as OBL.
• Received for Shipment B/L Validated at time cargo is received by ocean carrier to com-mence movement but before being validated as “Onboard”.
• Reconciled B/L B/L set which has completed a prescribed number of edits between the shipper’s instructions and the actual shipment received. This produces a very accurate B/L.
• Short Term B/L Opposite of Long Form B/L, a B/L without the Terms & Conditions written on it. Also known as a Short Form B/L. The terms are incorporated by reference to the long form B/L.
• Split B/L One of two or more B/L’s which have been split from a single B/L.
• Stale B/L A late B/L; in banking, a B/L which has passed the time deadline of the Letter of Credit (L/C) and is void.
• Straight (Consignment) B/L Indicates the shipper will deliver the goods to the con-signee.It does not convey title (non–negotiable).Most often used when the goods have been pre–paid.
• To Order B/L See Negotiable B/L.
• Unique B/L Identifier U.S. Customs’ standardization: four–alpha code unique to each carrier placed in front of nine digit B/L number; APL’s unique B/L Identifier is “APLU”. Sea–land uses “SEAU”. These prefixes are also used as the container identification.
• Voided B/L Related to Consolidated B/L; those B/L’s absorbed in the combining pro-cess. Different from Canceled B/L
Blacklist List of countries published by a particular government which will not allow ships to trade at its ports if they have traded at ports in the countries on that list.
Blanket Bond A bond covering a group of persons, articles or properties.
Blanket Rate A rate applicable to or from a group of points. A special rate applicable to several different articles in a single shipment.
Blanket Waybill A waybill covering two or more consignments of freight.
BLF Bow Loading Facilities
Blind Shipment A B/L wherein the paying customer has contracted with the carrier that shipper or consignee infor¬mation is not given.
BLK (blk) Bulk.
Block Denotes an area awarded for test drilling or production. Block sizes may vary
Block Stowage Stowing cargo destined for a specific location close together to avoid unnecessary cargo movement.20
Blocked Trains Railcars grouped in a train by destination so that segments (blocks) can be uncoupled and routed to different destinations as the train moves through various junctions. Eliminates the need to break up a train and sort individual railcars at each junction.
Blocking or Bracing Wood or metal supports to keep shipments in place to prevent cargo shifting.See also Dunnage.
Blowout Preventer Also called "Christmas Tree", a safety valve placed on the well head
Blowout Uncontrolled blow out of oil or gas due to excessive pressure in the reservoir
Bls. Abbreviation for “Bales.”
BLSEA Baltic Sea.
BLST (BST) Ballast.
BM Beam; Breadth Moulded.
BMIN Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation
BMLA British Maritime Law Association
BNA British North America
BO Best Offer
BOA Berthing on arrival.
BOA Basic Ordering Agreement
Board Feet The basic unit of measurement for lumber. One board foot is equal to a one–inch board, 12 inches wide and 1 foot long. Thus, a board 10 feet long, 12 inches wide, and 1 inch thick contains 10 board feet.
Board To gain access to a vessel.
Boat A relatively small, usually open craft/vessel a small, often open vessel for traveling on waterAn inland vessel of any size.
BOB Bunker on Board
Bobtail Movement of a tractor, without trailer, over the highway.
BOD APP Board of directors approval.
BOD Bunkers on delivery.
BOFFER(S)(boffer); BO(bo) Best Offer(s)
Bogie A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under the container.
BolsterA device fitted on a chassis or railcar to hold and secure the container.
Bond Port Port of initial Customs entry of a vessel to any country. Also known as First Port of Call.
Bonded Freight Freight moving under a bond to U.S. Customs or to the Internal Revenue Service, to be delivered only under stated conditions.
Bonded Warehouse A warehouse authorized by Customs authorities for storage of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods are removed.
Book Space (to) As a shipper or his agent, to reserve space in a ship for the carriage of certain defined goods from a place of loading to a place of discharging.
Booking Reservation made by a shipper or his agent with a carrier for the carriage of certain defined goods between defined places.
Booking List List of all cargo bookings for a particular sailing. It is compiled by a shipping line from lists sent in by the line's agents responsible for taking bookings for the various ports on the ship's itinerary.
Booking Number Reservation number used to secure equipment and act as a control number prior to completion of a B/L.
Booking Arrangements with a carrier for the acceptance and carriage of freight; i.e., a space reservation.
BOP Abbreviation for Blowout Preventer
BOR Bunkers on re-delivery.
BORO Bulk, Oil and roll-on, roll-off vessel.
BOSVA British Offshore Supply Ships Association
BOTB British Overseas Trade Board (London)
Both to Blame Collision Clause Clause in a Bill of Lading or charter party which stipulates that, in the event of a collision between two ships where both are at fault, the owners of the cargo must indemnify the carrying ship against any amount paid by the carrying ship to the non-carrying ship for damage to that cargo. This clause arises because, under American law, a cargo owner is not able to make any recovery from the carrier for damage resulting from negligent navigation but may instead sue the non-carrying ship which in turn seeks recovery from the carrying ship in proportion of his fault. This would render a carrier indirectly liable for a loss for which he is not directly liable to the cargo owner. The clause has, however, been held to be invalid in the American courts when incorporated with a common carrier.
Bottom Side Rails Structural members on the longitudinal sides of the base of the container.
Bottom–Air Delivery A type of air circulation in a temperature control container. Air is pulled by a fan from the top of the container, passed through the evaporator coil for cooling, and then forced through the space under the load and up through the cargo. This type of airflow provides even temperatures.
BOW The forward most part of a vessel. This area usually houses gear lockers and is the end where anchors and mooring equipment are located.
Bow The front of a vessel.
Box Everyday term for container
Box Rate Rate of freight per shipping container, as opposed to per ton or per cubic meter. Since a box rate is unaffected by the actual quantity loaded into the container, it is in shipper's interest to load as much cargo as possible, subject to the maximum allowed, to effectively reduce the cost of carriage for each ton or cubic meter.
Boxcar A closed rail freight car.
BPI Baltic Panama Index.
BR Bulgarian Register of Shipping-- Bulgarian Classification Society --
Break Bulk (to) To commence to discharge a bulk cargo. It is sometimes a condition of carriage that freight, or some percentage of it, becomes payable on breaking bulk.
Break Bulk-To unload and distribute a portion or all of the contents of a rail car, container, trailer, or ship. Loose, non–containerized mark and count cargo. Packaged cargo that is not containerized.
Breakbulk Relating to cargo lifted on and off ships one piece or bundle at a time by means of cranes or derricks, as opposed to cargo shipped on trailers or in shipping containers. Such goods may be described as breakbulk cargo; the ships which carry them are sometimes referred to as breakbulk ships which are operated on a regular basis between advertised ports, provide a breakbulk service. The term breakbulk is often used to denote the opposite of containerized. Broken stowage Amount of unused space in a ship or a hold by virtue of the irregular shape of the cargo. For example, the space taken up by a bundle of bars of irregular length would be calculated on the basis of the longest length, as if all the bars were of that length.
Break-Bulk Cargo Goods shipped loose in the vessel's hold and not in container
BRGDS Best Regards.
Bridge Point An inland location where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and then moved to a coastal port for loading.
Bridge Port A port where cargo is received by the ocean carrier and stuffed into containers but then moved to another coastal port to be waded on a vessel.
BRM Bridge Resource Management
BROA British Rigowners' Association
BROB Bunkers Remaining on Board
Broken Stowage The loss of space caused by irregularity in the shape of packages. Any void or empty space in a vessel or container not occupied by cargo.
Broker A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load.
Brokerage Fee or commission payable by a shipowner to a shipbroker for successful negotiation of a charter, It is normally expressed as a percentage of the freight or hire and demurrage. Brokerage may or may not be payable, according to the terms of the Charter-Party, should the voyage or period of the charter not be completed.
Brokerage Freight forwarder/broker compensation as specified by ocean tariff or contract.
BS (B/S) Bunker surcharge
BS Broken Stowage
BSC British Shippers Council
BSI British Standards Institution
BSS 1/1 Basis 1 Port to 1 Port
BST British Summer Time, British Standard Time.
BT Berth Terms Expression signifying that the contract of carriage is subject to the customs and conditions of the ports of loading and discharging.
BT (bt) Berth terms.
BTCS Butterworth Tank Cleaning System A mechanical device used for the purpose of cleaning oil tanks by means of high pressure jets of hot water. The apparatus basically consists of double opposed nozzles which rotate slowly bout their horizontal and vertical axis and project two streams of water through all possible angles against all inside surfaces of the space being cleaned. The tank washing machines can deliver sprays of water at various temperatures and pressures which are dictated by the type of cargoes carried and the reasons for cleaning (Quick bottom wash through gas-freeing and tank entry for hot work).
BTD Butadiene (cargo for gas carrier).
BTU British Thermal Unit.
Bulk Cargo Not in packages or containers; shipped loose in the hold of a ship without mark and count.” Grain, coal and sulfur are usually bulk freight.
Bulk ship (bulk carrier) Single deck ship carrying homogenous unpackaged cargoes. Loaded through large hatchways
Bulkcargo Homogeneous dry cargo (not packaged), e.g. coal, grain, iron ore, etc
Bulk–Freight Container A container with a discharge hatch in the front wall; allows bulk commodities to be carried.
Bulkhead A partition separating one part of a ship, freight car, aircraft or truck from another part.
Bulk-oil carrier Multipurpose vessel built to carry cargoes of coal as well as oil. Most bulk-oil carriers are reinforced to carry ores and are called OBO-ship (ore/bulk/oil)
Bull Rings Cargo–securing devices mounted in the floor of containers; allow lashing and securing of cargo.
Bumber Sub A tool, approx. 20 meters long, allowing a certain amount of vertical movement.
BUNDLING This is the assembly of pieces of cargo, secured into one manageable unit. This is a very flexible description; a rule of thumb is to present cargo at a size easily handled by a large (20 ton) fork lift truck.
Bunker Charge An extra charge sometimes added to steamship freight rates; justified by higher fuel costs. Also known as Fuel Adjustment Factor or FAF.
BUNKERS Name given for vessels Fuel and Diesel Oil supplies (Originates from coal bunkers)
Bunkers Ship's fuel. To take on fuel, is called bunkering
Bunkers A maritime term referring to fuel used aboard the ship. In the past, fuel coal stowage areas aboard a vessel were in bins or bunkers.
Bureau Veritas A French classification society which certifies seagoing vessels for compliance to standardized rules regarding construction and maintenance.
Bury Barge Vessel especially equipped to bury oil and gas pipelines on the sea bed
BV Bureau Veritas French classification society.
BW/BWA Brackish water/ brackish water allowance.
BWAD Brackish Water Arrival Draft(i.e Density between fresh water(1000kgs/cum) and salt water(1025)
BWDD Brackish water departure draft.
C (Charlie) Yes (affirmative)
C and/or J China and/or Japan
C of B Centre of Buoyancy
C&E Customs and Excise - British Department for Tariffs and Customs.
C&F FO. Cost & Freight Free Out
C&F Cost and Freight - Goods are to be sold on the basis that the seller arranges their seaborne transportation and delivery to the buyer.
C&F(CFR) Cost and Freight
c.f.g cubic feet of gas
c.f.g.d./hr./min cubic feet of gas per day / hour / minute
c.f.hr./sec. cubic feet per hour/second
C.I.F. Cost, insurance and freight.
C.I.F. & E. Cost, insurance, freight and exchange.
C.I.F.C.I. Cost, insurance, freight, commission and interest.
C.I.F.F.O. Cost, insurance, freight, and free out.
C.I.F.I. & E. Cost, insurance, freight, interest and exchange.
c.i.f.l.t. (CIFLT) Cost, insurance and freight, London terms.
C.I.S. Confederation of Independent States (former Soviet Union - see also FSU)
c.m.p.s centimetres per second
C.O. Country of origin; cargo oil; case oil
c.o.d. Cash on delivery.
C/E/V;C/V/E Communication/Entertainment/Victualling;Cable, victuals and entertainment.
C/N Credit Note
C/O/H Cuba / Orinoco / Haiti
C/P (c/p orCP) Charter party.
CA Central America
CAACE Comit des Associations d'Armateurs de la Communaut Europenne (Brussels) - organization for shipping companies from the EU.
CABA Containing Air Breathing Apparatus
CABAF Currency And Bunker Adjustment Factor
CABAF. Currency and bunkering adjustment factors.
Cabotage Coastal trade, i.e. the movement of goods by ship between ports on the same coast or between ports within the same country.
CACM Central American Common Market
CAD Cash Against Documents
CAF. Currency adjustment factor.
CAJEA Council of All Japanese Exporters' Association
Camber The arching of the deck upward measured at the centerline in inches per foot beam.
CAN. Calcium ammonium nitrate (cargo).
CAP Condition Assessment Programme - inspection of a vessel to determine its technical condition.
Capesize Vessel which is too large to navigate the Suez Canal to and from the Arabian Gulf, therefore being forced to voyage around the Cape of Good Hope - approximately 80,000 - 175,000 dwt.
Caping Routing a vessel around the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa.
Capital intensive tonnage Vessel demanding relatively large capital investments, e.g. cruiseships, gas- and chemical tankers, etc.
CAR (CARIB) Carribean Islands.
CARIBS Caribbean Sea
CARICOM Caribbean Community.
CAS Collision Avoidance System - Electronic system commonly used to prevent collisions in USA inland navigable waterways.
Casing Pipe with thick walls placed in the drill hole and cemented in place. Prevents the hole from caving in.
CASO Council of American- flag Ship Operators (eight liner companies which left the AIMS).
Catwalk A raised bridge running fore and aft from the Midship House, also called "walkway". It affords safe passage over the pipe lines and other deck obstructions.
Cave-in The walls of the drill hole disintegrating and filling up the hole.
CB & H Cont. (BH) Continent between Bordeaux and Hamburg.
CBA Collective Bargaining Agreement (tariff agreement) - CBA for Filipino seamen between AMOSUP and ASO is an example. The term is used for any kind of tariff agreement, both for NIS-ships and foreign flagged ships.
CBFS Carbon Black Feed Stock
CBFT (or CFT) Cubic Feet
CBL (cbl) Cable.
CBM Conventional Buoy Mooring / CUBIC METER
CBM,(Cbm) Cubic Meter
CBR Commodity Box Rate
CBT Clean Ballast Tanks
cc.hr./min Cubic centimeter per hour/minute
CCA Chemical Carriers Association
CCAF Comité des Armateurs de France - the French ship-owners' association.
CCC Customs Co-operation Council - forum for international cooperation between customs authorities, attempting to create harmony and uniformity of approach.
CCGD8 Commander Coast Guard District Eight
CCR Cargo Control Room
CCS China Classification Society
CCW Clean Coastal Waters (Long Beach CA cooperative)
CD Customary Dispatch; Chart Datum - a water level calculated on the lowest tide that can conceivably occur, and used as a basis for chart measurements. Such low tide is known also as the Lowest Astronomic Tide (LAT), and presupposes that at the very worst, there would always be that depth of available water at that particular spot.
CDS Chemical Data Sheet
CE Conseil de l'Europe (Strasbourg)
CEC Certificate of Equivalent Competency
CEFOR Maritime insurers central association.
Cellar Deck The level beneath Rotary Table on a rig. On a jack-up this means the well-head and BOP. On a floating rig, it is the deck from which the guidelines are controlled. May also have a Marine Riser.
CEMT Conference Europeenne des Ministres des Transports - OECD-affiliated organization for dealing with transportation problems on rails, roads and inland waterways.
CEN European Standardization Organization
CENELEC European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation
CENSA Council of European and Japanese (Nipponese) National Shipowners' Association
CENSA Council of European and Japanese National Shipowners' Associations (London).
CERCLA Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (U.S.)
CES Customs Exam Station(U.S. Customs designation for office granting import licence on USDA approved cargoes)
CFR Code of Federal Regulations (U.S.)
CFS Container Freight Station ; Cubic Feet per Second
CFT (CuFt) Cubic Feet
CGT Colliery Guarantee Terms - the ship is to be loaded in accordance with the terms of the colliery (coal mine) guarantee, which is a contract between the colliery and the charterers - occasionally between the colliery and the ship owner - describing applicable laytime, excepted periods, holiday and demurrage
CH & H Continent between Le Havre and Hamburg
CHA Customs house agent.
CHABE (chabe);cabe Charterer’s agents both ends.
Charterer Cargo owner or another person/company who hires a ship.
Chartering agent Shipbroker acting on behalf of charterer in negotiations leading to the chartering of a ship.
Chartering To hire a ship to carry goods/cargo.
Charter-Party (C/P) Contract for the hire of a ship or space in a ship ; Transport contract between shipowner and shipper of goods.
Chemical tanker Special tanker built for the transportation of bulk chemicals. Newer tonnage is equipped with stainless steel tanks. Ships may carry many different cargoes simultaneously, because each tank has its own pump and pipeline system for loading and unloading.
CHINPO China Sea, Indian and Pacific Oceans.
CHOPT Charterer's Option - May refer, for example, to Charterer's option to discharge at a number of ports - e.g.: "up to three ports Taiwan, in Charterer's Option". Or perhaps relative to a cargo size margin - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less chopt". (See MOLCO).
CHRTS (Chts) Charterers
CI/CLS (ci/cls) Clause.
CIC Clean Island Council (Hawaiian cooperative)
CIF Cost, Insurance, Freight. Designates that the cargo is carried free of charge for the buyer; seller pays all transportation costs.
CIFC Cost, Insurance, Freight and Commission
CIFFO Cost, Insurance and Freight, Free Out
CIM International Convention Concerning the Carriage of Goods by Rail.
CIMA Channel Industries Mutual Aid Association
CIP Carriage and insurance paid to.
CIRCAC Cook Inlet Regional Citizen's Advisory Council
CIS Commonwealth of Independant States
CISPRI Cook Inlet Spill Prevention, Inc. (Alaskan cooperative)
Civil Liability Convention CLC - see Oil spill compensation.
CKD Completely Knocked Down - Said of cargo, normally of cars, shipped in pieces and cased, to be assembled at destination.
Classification society Organization which carries out surveys of newbuildings and at regular intervals when in commission, sets and maintains quality standards for ships and their equipment. Acts on behalf of the flag state's maritime authorities.
CLC Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage, 1969.
CLINGAGE The residue that adheres to the inner surface and structure of a container, such as a tank after having been emptied
CLS Closed Loading System
CMI Comite Maritime International - the international association for maritime law.
CMR Convention on the Contract for Intrntnl Carriage of Goods by Road.
CNR; cnr Charterers not reportered; Charter not reported
COA Contract of Affreightment - quantity contract: An agreement between shipowner and shipper concerning the freight of a defined amount of cargo. The shipowner chooses ship.
COACP Contract of Affreightment Charter Party
Coating Paint (corrosion protection)
COB Cargo on board; close of business.
COD Cash On Delivery
COE Corps Of Engineers
COFFERDAM The narrow, empty space between two adjacent watertight or oil-tight compartments. This space is designed to isolate the two compartments from each other and/or provide additional buoyancy. It prevents any liquid contents of one compartment from entering the other in the event of a bulkhead failure. In oil tankers, cargo spaces are usually isolated from the rest of the ship by cofferdams fitted at both ends of the tank body.
COFR Certificate of Financial Responsibility - regarding the transport of oil to USA. Vessels must have a certificate guaranteeing the payment of up to USD 1,500 per dwt. in case of oil spills.
COGS (COGSA) Carriage of Goods by Sea (Act).
Collar A thick piece of pipe closest to the bit.
Combination carrier Ships for the transportation of both liquid and dry bulkcargoes. There are two main types: Ore carriers and bulk-tank-ships.
COMBO Combination Carrier.
Commission Shipbroker's remuneration, normally 1.25 per cent of gross freight. Calculated also for sales and purchases of vessels at one per cent of purchase price.
Completion Making the hole ready for production.
Conductor Pipe Casing with large diametre - normally the first first lining or guide pipe fitted during the drilling operation.
CONS (cons); Consec Consecutive voyages;.consumption,
Cont. (Cont.) Continent or Europe.
Container vessel Ship specially designed to carry standard containers (TEUs). Generally called Cellular container ship. The larger part of the cargo-carrying capacity consists of containers carried on deck or in cells in the hold. Containers are lifted on and off with special cranes and are then called lift on-lift off-ships (see special entry). Container ships are generally fast, operating regular sailing schedules (lines).
Contract of Affreightment, c.o.a. Contract for the hire of a ship. The shipowner undertakes the transport of certain amounts of goods for one or several voyages.
COP Custom Of The Port - cargo to be loaded or discharged as per custom of the port. Thus no specific rate of cargo handling would be entered in the contract, the owner relying on the vagaries of local practices and customs. Presumably he will ask for a higher freight rate to protect him against possible delays.
COR Certificate Of Registry
COTCTFC Charterer's Option To Complete To Full Cargo
COTP Captain Of The Port (U.S. Coast Guard)
COTTON CLUB informal forum for Western European and Japanese shipping attachÃ©es in Washington. COTTON CLUB - informal forum for Western European and Japanese shipping attachÃ©es in Washington.
COW Crude Oil Washing - a method of cleaning tanks using oil from the vessel's cargo. COW is normally used when a tanker is discharging. Oil is taken from the tanks and pumped through a special line to fixed or semi-fixed tank washing machines where it is sprayed against all inside surfaces of the tank. This procedure removes any cargo which is "clinging" to the surfaces of the tank.
CP (or C/P) Charter Party
CPD Charterers Pay Dues
CPP (c.p.p.) Clean petroleum products.
CPT Carriage paid to.
CQD Customary Quick Dispatch - the vessel is to be loaded or discharged as quickly as is customary and possible - se CD
CR or CRN (cr) Cranes; Current rate; carrier’s risk.
CR China Corporation Register (Taiwan) - Taiwanese Skip Classification Agency.
Crane and Construction Vessel/Unit Normally a ship, a barge or a semisubmersible, equipped for the construction and maintenance of fixed installations. May sometimes offer accommodation. Other services offered are: Storage facilities, the supply of water, compressed air and electricity, office space, communications center, helicopter landing pad, etc.
CRC Clean River Cooperative (Portland OR - Columbia River)
CRC Cold Rolled Coils.
CRD Current Rate Discharge
CRISTAL Contract Regarding a Supplement to Tanker Liability for Oil Pollution - a voluntary system established by oil companies in order to "plug" holes in IMO-conventions concerning the financial settlement of claims in connection with oil spills. The oil companies' supplemet to TOVALOP.
CRL Current Rate Load (see Current Rate)
CROB Cargo Remaining on Board
Cross Trade The freight of cargoes between foreign ports. Nearly 95 per cent of the Norwegian-owned tonnage is cross-trading.
CRS Croatian Register of Shipping (Hravatski Registar Brodova) - Croatian Ship Classification Society
Crude (oil) Unrefined oil directly from the well.
Cruise ship Passenger vessel carrying passengers on trips between various ports, normally with the same starting and ending port. Standards of accommodation and recreation normally high.
CSC International Convention for Safe Containers
CSC Container Safety Convention - convention for the promotion of safer containers.
CSD Closed Shelter Deck Ship
CSG Consultative Shipping Group - forum for the discussion of shipping policy on Government level. Fourteen West-European participants and Japan.
CSM Closed System Measurement
CST Centistrokes - Measure of the viscosity of oils such as fuel oils. The greater the number of centistrokes, the higher the viscosity of a grade of oil.
CSWR Chamber of Shipping War Risks, CP clauses.
CT Centre tank; cargo tank; cubic tonnage of a ship.
CTAC Chemical Transportation Advisory Committee
CTL Constructive Total Loss - loss or damage to goods or to a ship which is such that the cost of repair or recovery would exceed their value when repaired or recovered.
CTO Combined transport operator
CTR Container Fitted
Cubic Capacity The most important commercial measurement when the cargo is so lightweight that the ship is filled to capacity without being loaded to the load line (free board). Capacity is measured in cubic meters or cubic feet (cu.ft.).
CUFT(cuft) Cubic feet
CUM(cu m) Cubic Meters
Current Rate A Term whereby the ship owner contracts to pay the current rate costs of loading and/or discharge.
CVO Certificate of value and origin
CVS Consecutive Voyages - a series of consecutive voyages, usually laden from Port A to Port B, returning in ballast condition, and so on until completion of final cargo discharge.
CVs; CVS; C/V (consec) Consecutive voyages.
CWD Colliery Working Days - a laytime term describing normal working days of a colliery (coal mine), including those in a strike or other actions.
Cwt. Hundred weight.
CY Country yard
CY Container Yard
D (Delta) Keep clear of me, I am maneuvering with difficulty
D ½ D (DHD) Despatch money payable at half demurrage rate. (Also demurrage, half dispatch).
D.O Delivery Order
d.p. Direct port.
D/A (DA, da), FREE D/A Disbursement Account,Discharge afloat, Free disbursement Account at the Loading and or discharging port (often given by charterers to the shipowners)
D/C Deviation clause; (in) direct continuation.
D/E (d/e) Deemed/Earned
D/P (d/p) Discharging Port, Documents against payment
D/R/D Dunnage, removal and disposal.
DAA(daa) Discharge always afloat.
DAF Delivered at frontier.
DAMFORDET Damages for Detention.
DAP (DAPS) Days all purpose;
DAP Diamonium Phosphate.
DB (db) Double bottom.
DBB Deals, Battens and Boards. Unit of measure of timber.
DBEATS Despatch (payable) both ends, all time saved
DBEWTS Despatch (payable) both ends, working time saved.
DBT Double Bottom Tanks
DD(dd) Dry docking, Dry Dock, Daily discharge;
DDO (ddo) Despatch discharging only.
DDP Delivered duty paid.
DDU Delivered duty unpaid.
Dead Freight Money payable by shipper or charterer to ship-owner or shipping line for failing to load the amount of cargo stipulated in contract.
Deadweight The largest weight of cargo, bunkers and stores a ship is able to carry. Expressed in metric tons (1,000 kg) or long tons (1,016 kg). The deadweight tonnage is the most important commercial measurement. Normally the maximum payload for a ship is three to ten per cent lower than the deadweight, due to the weight of bunkers and stores, etc.
DEC De-ratting exemption certificate.
Decompression Slow, controlled reduction of pressure inside a pressure chamber to prevent divers from suffering the "bends" after a too fast ascent.
Degassing The removal of oil and gas from the drilling mud which may then be used again.
Dehydration Plant/ Water Separation Plant Various types of equipment for the "drying" of gas or oil.
DEL , DELY(dely) and REDLY(redly) Delivery and Re-delivery----on Time charter or Bareboat Charter business.
DELREDEL Delivery and Redelivery
DEM Demurrage - A fixed sum, per day or per hour, agreed to be paid for the detention of the vessel under charter at the expiration of the allowed laytime.
DEM-DES(P) Demurrage and dispatch.
Demurrage Money paid to ship-owner by charterer, shipper or receiver, for failing to complete loading/discharging within time allowed according to charter-party.
DEQ Delivered ex-quay
Der (DR) Derricks.(of a Ship)
Derrick Man Platform worker handling the drill stem in the tower.
DES (des) Despatch; Delivered ex-ship
DES Disaster Emergency Services
Deviated Well A hole which intentionally is not drilled straight down.
DF (df) Dead Freight or Direction Finder.
DFD (dfd) Demurrage, free dispatch.
DFD Demurrage/Free Dispatch - An expression confirming that a ship owner may be entitled to demurrage for port delay to his vessel, but that no dispatch is applicable in case lay time is saved - e.g.: "$ 2,000 Demurrage/Free Dispatch". Common in short-sea and other trades where turn-a-round in port is speedy; for example, ro-ro vessels.
Dft Draft (also spelt, draught).
DG Directorate General - the term used for the various departments of the EU-Commission.
dh Double hull.
DHD / D½D Demurrage/Half Dispatch - This term, often found in voyage charter negotiations, signifies that dispatch money is to be paid at half the daily demurrage rate.
DHD(dhd) Demurrage/Half Despatch
DHDATSBENDS Demurrage Half Dispatch on All Time Saved Both Ends.
DHDLTSBENDS Demurrage Half Dispatch on Laytime Saved Both Ends.
DHDWTSBENDS Demurrage Half Dispatch on Working TIme Saved Both Ends.
DHPT Department of Highways and Public Transportation
Diamond Bit The tip of the drill stem reinforced with diamond to prolong its lifetime.
DIM (dim) Dimension
Dip Meter An instrument to measure deviations in the vertical component in the terrestrial magnetic field. Used to determine the position of the sediment and its structure, and to measure the deviation of the drilling hole.
DIP Depth of liquid = to American expression: gauge
Directional Drilling see Deviated Well.
DIRTY Crude black oil.
DIS Dansk Internationalt Skibsregister - Danish International Shipregister.
DISCH (dish) Discharge
DISP Dispatch - An agreed amount per day or per hour agreed to be paid to terminals or charterer of a vessel for prompt turnaround of a vessel. Usually half the amount of the agreed demurrage rate. (Demurrage - Half Dispatch).
Dispatch Remuneration payable by shipowner to charterer, shipper or receiver for loading/discharging in less than the time allowed according to charter-party.
DISPONENT OWNER Company that control the commercial operation of a vessel under a bareboat or Time charter party
DISPORT (disport) Discharge port.
Disposal Well Drilling hole which is prepared for the re-injection of produced saline into the reservoirs.
Diving Bell Bell shaped construction for deep sea diving.
Diving Support Vessel Ship with diving equipment on board, carrying out various types of diving operations. May also be equipped with remotely operated or controlled sub-sea robots (Remote Operated Vehicle - ROV).
DK Deutsche Schiffs-Revision und Klassifikation
DLOSP; DLOP. (dlosp) Dropping last outward sea pilot, Dropping last outward pilot.
DLT (dlt) Delete
DNME Dynamic Non-Member Economies (referring to dynamic countries which are not members of the OECD)
DNMF Det norske maskinistforbund - the Norwegian association for Ships' engineers.
DNRCAOSLONL Discountless and Non-Returnable Cargo and/or Ship Lost or Not Lost. (ie for the payment of voyage freight in the charter party)
DNV Det Norske Veritas (NV) - Norwegian classification society.
DNVPS Det Norske Veritas Petroleum Services
DO (d.o.) Diesel oil.
DOA U.S. Department Of Agriculture
DOC(doc) Document of Compliance
DOD U.S. Department Of Defense
DOE U.S. Department Of Energy
DOH U.S. Department Of Health
DOHP (dohp) Dropping outward harbour pilot.
DOI U.S. Department Of the Interior
Donald Duck-effect Voice distortion due to the inhalation of the oxygen-helium mixture used in deep sea diving.
DOP Dropping Outward Pilot - frequently used provision in a time charter to determine the time and place of redelivery of a ship to the owner by the charterer. The hire ceases at the moment the pilot disembarks.
DOSP(dosp) Dropping outward sea pilot.
DOT U. S. Department Of Transportation
DOTC Department Of Transportation Classification
DoTI Department of Trade and Industry, UK
DP Dynamic Positioning
DPD (dpd) Discharge port disbursements.
DPO Dynamic Positioning Officer
DPP (d.p.p.) Dirty petroleum products.
DPS Dynamic Positioning System
DR Danmarks Rederiforening - the Danish Shipowners' Association.
DRAFT The depth of a ship in the water. This distance is measured from the bottom of the ship to the surface of the water. Draft marks are painted or welded on the surface of the vessels vertical plating. They are placed forward, aft and amidships on both sides of the vessel. At the amidships draft the official Load Line marker (Plimsoll mark) is also found. This Plimsoll mark designates the vessels maximum drafts allowed under various conditions.
Drag Bit One-bladed drillbit for drilling in soft sediments.
DRATE (drate) Discharge rate.
DRC (d.r.c) Daily running cost.
DRI . Direct reduced iron (cargo)
Drift Horizontal error during drilling operations.
Drill Pipe Pipes with thin walls used during drilling. Each section is normally approximately 10 metres long.
Drill Stem Test Standard procedure to test oil or gas discoveries during drilling.
Drill Stem The string driving the bit into the sediments.
Drill String see Drill Stem.
Driller The person in charge during drilling operations.
Drilling Barge Barge equipped for drilling operations in smooth seas. Normally not equipped with own propulsion machinery. Max. drilling depth approximately 150 meters.
Drilling Fluid, Drilling Mud A special mixture used during drilling operations to lubricate the bit and balance the pressure in the drilling hole.
Drilling Rig Drilling tower with turntable and mud pumping system. May be installed on an offshore rig or placed on a fixed or floating offshore installation like a drillship.
Drilling Supervisor The engineer in charge.
Drilling Tender Service vessel with personnel and equipment to the drilling rig ; Ship serving drilling installations which are depending on a ship or a barge for storage, accommodation, etc.
Drillship Ship equipped with drilling rig and its own propulsion machinery. Kept in position by Dynamic Positioning Equipment. Operating in waters with a max. depth of 2,000 metres.
DRK(s); DRRKS. Derrick(s) (of a ship)
Dry cargo Grain, coal, ore, general cargo, etc.
DSO De samarbeidende organisasjoner - cooperation between DNMF and NS for mobile offshore installations (Norway).
DSRK Deutsche Schiffs Revision und Klassifikation - German classification society.
DSV Diving Support Vessel
DT Deep Tank - Tank situated between the holds of a ship, primarily used for water ballast but capable of carrying water or fuel.
DTLS;(dtls); DETS(dets) Details.
DW/DWT Dead Weight/Dead Weight Tons
DWA Dock water allowance
DWAT Dead Weight All Told: The total deadweight of a vessel at any time, or estimated against a particular draft. Includes cargo, bunkers, constant weight, etc.
DWCC Dead Weight Cargo Capacity ; Dead Weight Carrying Capacity: Weight of cargo which a ship is able to carry when immersed to the appropriate load line, expressed in tones or tons.
Dwct Deadweight cargo tons.
DWOC (dwoc) Decline without counter
DWT (dwt) Deadweight (tonnage). of a vessel
Dynamic positioning Keeping the ship's position with the help of automatically controlled propellers.
E (Echo) I am altering my course to starboard
E&P FORUM The Oil Industry International Exploration and Production Forum (London). Statoil, Norsk Hydro and Saga Petroleum are full Norwegian members, while OLF is associated member.
e.o.h.p. Except otherwise herein provided.
E.O.P. End (completion) of passage.
E/B AFT(e/b aft) Engine and Bridge aft.
EAT Expected (or estimated) arrival time.
Eb Empty ballast
EBRD European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
EC East Coast; European Communities
ECCP East Coast (UK) coal port
ECE Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva (UN)
ECGB . East Coast of Great Britain
ECI East coast of Ireland
ECIND. East coast of India
ECJ European Court of Justice (EU)
ECLA Economic Commission for Latin America, UN-body under ECOSOC.
ECM East coast of Mexico
ECMT European Conference of Ministers of Transport
ECNA East Coast of North America.
ECOSOC Economical and Social Council of the United Nations, New York - UN's main body for economic questions. The regional commissions - ECLA, ESCAP, ECA, etc. - answer to ECOSOC.
ECSA East Coast South America ; European Community Ship-owners' Association (Brussels)
ECSC European Coal and Steel Community
ECU European Currency Units. A financial unit used for EU accounting.
ECUK East Coast of United Kingdom.
ECUS East Coast of U.S.A
EDI Electronic data interchange.
EEA European Economic Area
EFTA European Free Trade Association of Non-common Market Countries.
EGM Export general manifest.
EI East Indies
EIB European Investment Bank
EIU (eiu) Even if used.
EIUBE (eiube) Even if used both ends.
ELA Euzko Langilleen Alkartsuna - Spanish-Basque trade union.
ELVENT Electric Ventilation
EMA European Monetary Agreement
EMAS Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
EMED,(emed) East Mediterranean --Sea--
EMIF European Maritime Industries Forum
EMU Economic Monetary Union
ENE East North-East.
EOP End (Completion) of passage
EP Estimated position.
ERLOAD Expected ready to load.
ERV Each round voyage.(usually in Tanker Trade)
ESA EFTA Surveillance Authority.
ESC European Shippers' Council (Hague)
ESCAPE Economic and Social Commission for Asia and South Pacific - under ECOSOC.
EST;est. European Standard Time; Estimated.
ETA (eta) Estimated Time of Arrival
ETBC Easy trimmer bulk carrier.
ETC (etc) Estimated Time of Completion of loading
ETD (etd) Estimated Time of Departure
ETF (etf) Expected time of finishing
ETR (etr) Expected to be ready.
ETS (ets) Estimated Time of Sailing
EUROMED European Mediterranean.
EUROS Planned ship register in the EU.
EXC (exc) Except
EXCL(excl) Excluding/Excluded, Exclusive.
EXIMBANK Export-Import Bank of the United States to promote American exports.
EXINS (exins) Extra Insurance.
EXPLOAD(expload) Expected to load (of a vessel)
Exploration Well Hole drilled during the search for new oil reserves.
EXW Ex Works
F (Foxtrot) I am disabled, communicate with me
F Fresh water load line mark; forward; forecastle;Fahrenheit.
F & D Freight and demurrage
F.DESP;FDESP; FD Free dispatch.
F.DIS;FDIS Free discharge.
F/DA(f/da); FD/A; (fd/a Free disbursement Account.(i.e The Charterers to pay all the port expenses + Agency fees free from the Ship-owners
FAC (fac) Fast as can
Faccop Fast as can, according to the custom of the port.
FACS Federation of American Controlled Shipping - organization for US companies with ships under FOC, mainly the Liberian.
FAF Fuel adjustment factor
FAK Freight all kinds (containers)
FAO UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (Rome)
FAS (fas) Free alongside; free arrival station.
FASA Federation of Asian Ship-owners' Associations
FBL FIATA. Combined transport bill of lading
FC Fund Convention (for oil pollution damage).
FCA Free to Carrier; Fellow Chartered Accountant.
FCC (fcc) Full & Complete Cargo.
FCC(fcc) First class charterer
FCL Full container load
FCS Fresh of capture and seizure.
FCSSS For Christ’s sake say something (slang usually used in chartering,to denote from the other side to comment.
FD Free discharge; free of dispatch.
FDD Freight Demurrage Deadfreight
FDEDANRSAOCLONL Freight Deemed Earned Discountless and Non-Refundable Ship and or Cargo Lost Or Not Lost.
FDEOSSAOCLONL Freight Deemed Earned on Shipment Ship and or Cargo Lost or Not Lost.
FEAST Far East
Feeder Vessel A short-sea vessel used to fetch and carry goods and containers to and from deep sea vessels.
FENSO Federation of Norwegian Ships Officers organizations (NMB in Norwegian)
FEU Forty foot equivalent unit.(of a Container)
Ffa; FFA. Free from alongside; Free from average, Freight Future Agreement
FFI For further instructions.
FH First half
FHEX Fridays, Holidays Excluded (i.e Excepted) (Muslim Countries)
FHINC Fridays and holidays included.
FIATA Federation International des Associations de Transifaires et Assimiles (Zurich) - International association of forwarding agents.
FIB Free into barge; free into bunkers.
FICS; F.I.C.S. Fellow of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London-UK. A person of such status in all round Shipping & Shipbroking experiences, can described himself or herself or be called "A Chartered Shipbroker". The ICS which is the ONLY Internationally recognised professional qualifications by examinations (MICS, or FICS membership) indicating of the person's highest excellence & professionalism in shipping and shipbroking industry. http://www.ics.org.uk
FILO Free in and liner out.
FILTD Free in, liner terms discharge
FIO Free in and Out - charterer pays for loading/discharging.
FIOLS Free in and out, lashed and secured.
FIOSpT Fee in and out, spout trimmed.
FIOT Free In and Out and Trimmed
Fish - object A fragment of a drill bit, broken drill pipe, or other object lodged at the bottom of the drilling hole, preventing continued drilling.
Fishing The work of removing a Fish.
FISLSD/LO Free in, stowed, lashed, secured and dunnaged /liner out.
FIT Free In Trimmed OR Free of income tax
FIW Free In Wagon
Fixture Successful conclusion of negotiations between shipowner and charterer, normally with the aid of a shipbroker.
Flag discrimination National legislation reserving cargo for own ships.
Flag of convenience (FOC) Term used by labor organizations about countries allowing unlimited registration of foreign-owned ships in order to achieve low wage levels and low or no taxation payable to the flag state. Some FOC- flag states had previously very lax control routines, or no control at all, concerning the vessels' technical standard and their seaworthiness.
Flaring The burning of non-commercial oil and gas on the production platform or vessel.
FLASH Feeder lighter aboard ship
Flexible Joint - or Ball-joint The bottom part of the Marine Riser construction, utilized during drilling from floating rig or vessel. Allows a certain angle deviation when the vessel or rig is positioned.
Flo-flo-ship Special ship which may be submerged to allow cargo to be floated on or off, i.e. jack-up platforms which may be carried "piggy-back"-fashion on a flo-flo-ship.
FLT Full liner terms; forklift truck.
Flush Phase The initial production phase.
FMC Federal Maritime Commission - American independent control authority regulating liner services to the USA.
FO (IFO) Fuel Oil;(Intermediate Fuel Oil)
FO Free out;Free overside; fuel oil; furnace oil; for orders;
FOB Free on Board - seller is responsible for delivering cargo to the port, paying also for the loading.
FOBS; FOBT. Free on board and stowed; Free on board and trimmed.
FOC Flag of Convennience; free of conveyance; also free of charge
FOD Free of damage.
FOFFER Firm Offer
FOG; FYG; FYI For Our Guidance; For your Guidence; For your information.
FOL (fol) Following.
FOM Flag, ownership and management.
FONASABA Federation of National Associations of Shipbrokers and Agents
FOQ Free on quay.
FOR Free On Rail.
Force Majeure A clause limiting responsibility for charterer, shipper or receiver of cargo.
FOS Free on ship.
FOT Free On Truck.
FOW (fow) First open water;--e.g After ice in Baltic or St Lawrence. Great lakes trading needs FOW in St Lawrence for example;-- free on wharf; free on wagon. OR Free on Wharf.
FP (fp) (In) free pratique; flash point; Fore Peak--Ballast or Fresh water tank forward of collision Bulkhead.
FPSO Floating Production, Storage and Offloading Unit
FR Finland's Rederifrening - the Finnish Ship-owners' Association.
FRB Fast Rescue Boat
Free pratique Ship inspected and cleared by the health authorities of a country.
FSO Floating storage and offloading unit
FT Fuel terms; also, full terms.
FTC(ftc) Free Transferable Currency.
FTTM First thing tomorrow morning.
FV Fishing vessel.
FW(fw) Fresh water.
FWA Fresh water allowance.
FWAD Fresh Water Arrival Draft
FWD(Fwd,fwd) Forward. Opposite of aft
FWDD Fresh Water Departure Draft
FEW Finished With Engine. (Usually seen on master’s Arrival reports.)
FXTR (fxtr) Fixture.
FYI For Your Information
FYG (fyg) For Your Guidance
FYPG (fypg) For Your Private Guidance
FYVPG (fyvpg) For Your Very Private Guidance
PFSO; FSO Petroleum Floating Storage Offloading; Floating Storage Offloading
G (Golf) I require a pilot
G (g); GN (or GR) Grain capacity;Grain (capacity)
G.A; GA PLAN General Average; General Arrangement Plan.
G.B. Great Britain.
G/B (GR/BL) Grain / bale capacity.
Gas Lift The technique of mixing gas into the oil flow in order to enhance the flow.
Gas Oil Ratio The ratio between the produced gas in cubic feet, and the oil measured in barrels.
Gas Re-Injection Secondary Recovery Technique with the re-injection of "dried" and condensate-free gas to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Gas tanker Special ship for the transportation of condensed (liquid) gases. The most important cargoes are: -LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas (mostly methane). -LPG - Liquefied Petroleum Gas (propane, butane). -Ammonia. -Ethylene. On board, gases are kept liquid with highly effective insulation (thermos bottle-principle), by high pressure or by low temperature. LNG-ships must be able to carry cargoes with temperatures as low as -163°C.
Gas Well The discovery of hydrocarbons with a high Gas Oil Ratio.
GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services - part of GATT - concerns trading in services, incl. shipping.
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva).
GBB Gross ballast bonus.
GBS Gravity Base Structure
GC General cargo; great circle.
GCBS General Council of British Shipping - the amalgamation of the former BSF - British Shipping Federation - and the UK Chamber of Shipping, established 1976.
GD(gd),GDAY(Gday) Good Day
Gdy Good Day.
GENCAR General cargo.
GENCON'94 , GCN(gcn) Gencon'94 charter party(code name)
General cargo Goods unpackaged or packaged, but not shipped in bulk.
GEOG RTN (GEOG ROT) In geographical rotation.
Geological Survey Detailed investigation for structure and type of sediment.
GEOROT Geographical Rotation - sequence in which ship calls at ports on her itinerary.
G-H RGE Gibraltar - Hamburg range
GIS German International Shipregister
GL Germanischer LLoyd ---Germany Classification Society
GLESS Gear less.
GMDSS Global Maritime Distress and Safety System
GNCN; Gencon. General Conditions
GO. Gas oil.
Gooseneck Curved section of pipeline where the drill mud reaches the flexible hosepipe for further transportation to the swivel.
GOP Gross operating profit.
GP General purpose
Grain Cap Grain Capacity - a ship's grain-carrying capacity.
Gravity Structure Platform firmly placed on the seabed without any special fastenings due to its high specific gravity. Several gravity structures have been installed in deep parts of the North Sea.
Gross Terms. Under which the carrier has to arrange and pay for cargo -handling,although laytime will probably apply.
Gross Tonnage GT (0.2+0.02Â•log10V)Â•V, where V is the volume in cubic metres of all enclosed spaces on board.
GRT (grt) Gross register tonnage.
GSB (gsb) (1 gsb) Good Safe Berth (One good safe Berth)
GSP (gsp) (1 gsp Good Safe Port (One good safe Port)
GSSL Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia or Leghorn.
GSSLNCV Ports of Genoa, Savona, Spezia, Leghorn, Naples, Civetta or Vecchia
GT (gt) Gross tonnage.
GTEE (gtee) Guarantee
H (Hotel) I have a pilot on board
H AND M. (h and m) Hull and Machinery.
H.A. or D. Le Havre, Antwerp or Dunkirk.
H.H. (H/H) Ports between and inclusive of Le Havre and Hamburg.
H/V Hague Visby Rules.
Ha (ha) Hatch, hatchway.
Handymax Dry bulk vessel of approximately 35,000 - 50,000 dwt.
Handysize Dry bulk vessel or product tanker, 15,000 - 50,000 dwt.
HAT Highest astronomical tide.==The opposite to Lowest Astronomic Tide==
HBI Hot Briquetted Iron.
HBL Hydrostatically Balanced Loading - balancing oil and water pressure preventing oil leaks in case of grounding. HBL reduces the cargo carrying capacity bu appr. 7 per cent.
HBR Hamburg range.
HC ,H/C (h/c) hatch cover; hold cleaning
HCHTRS Head charterers.
HCM Ho Chi Minh City.
HD (hd) Half dispatch.
HDATS. Half dispatch all time saved.
HDATSBE Half dispatch all time saved both ends.
HDLTSBENDS. Half Dispatch Lay Time Saved Both Ends
HDWTS Half Despatch Working Time Saved
HDWTSBE, Half dispatch working time saved both ends
HFO Heavy fuel oil.
HG Heavy Grain Grain filling the ship to full deadweight capacity.
HHDW Handy Heavy d.w. (scrap)
HHDWS(hhdws) Heavy, handy, deadweight scrap (scrap stowing deadweight i.e about 40-50 cuft per ton)
Hire-purchase Charter-Party C/P where the charterer gets ownership of the vessel at the conclusion of the C/P.
HMB Heavy motor block
HMS Heavy Melting Scrap
HNS Hazardous and Noxious Substances
HR Hellenic Register.---Greece(Greek) Classification Society---
HR Hellenic Register of Shipping - Greek classification society.
HR(hr) Here; Hour.
HR/HRDS Hampton Roads
HRC Hot Rolled Coils
HSC High Speed Craft
HSD High speed diesel.
HSLC High Speed Light Craft
HSS (hss) Heavy grains, Soyabeans and sorghums
HSS Highspeed Sea Service - fast ferry concept with double- or multihulled vessels with carrying capacity of up to 1500 passengers and around 400 cars.
HTUTC (htutc) Half Time Used To Count.
HV (hv) Have.
HVF Heavy viscosity fuel oil.
HW High Water
HWDW Heavy, handy, dead weight.
HWLTHC. Height waterline to top hatch.
HWONT High water on ordinary neap tides
HWOST High water on ordinary spring tides=The opposite to Low Water on Ordinary Spring Tides.
IMDG = International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code
IMO = International Maritime Organization
IND = Indication
INTERMODAL = Carriage of a commodity by different modes of transport, i.e.
sea, road, rail and air within a single journey.
ITF = International Transport Federation international body that regulates crewing
IU = If Used
IUATUTC = If Used, Actual Time Used To Count
IUHATUTC = If Used, Half Actual Time Used To Count
IWL = Institute Warranty Limits
I (India) I am altering my course to port
I.A.C.S. (IACS) International Association of Classification Societies.
IAC (iac) In all case
IACS International Association of Classification Societies
IADC International Association of Drilling Contractors (Houston/Amsterdam)
IAPH International Association of Ports and Harbours.
IATA International Air Transport Association.
IBC Intermediate bulk carrier.
IBIA International Bunker Industry Association (Kingston on Thames).
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (Washington) - the World Bank.
ICC International Chamber of Commerce.
ICC International Chamber of Commerce
ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions
ICHCA International Cargo Handling Co-ordination Association (London)
ICOTAS International Committee on the Organization of Traffic at Sea (London)
ICPL International Committee on Passenger Lines (for the CENSA-countries).
ICS Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers; International Chamber of Shipping. (London)
IDL International Date Line.
IFC International Finance Corporation
IFO (ifo) Intermediate fuel oil.
IFSMA International Federation of ShipMasters Association (London)
IGM Import general manifest.
IGS Inert Gas System.
IHP Indicated horse power.
ILA International Law Association
ILO UN's International Labour Organization (Geneva)
ILOHC (ilohc) In lieu of hold cleaning.
ILOW In lieu of weighing.
IMB International Maritime Bureau - bureau established by the ICC to combat fraud in the shipping industry.
IMCO Intergovernmental Maritime Consultitive Organisation.
IMDG International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code - rules for the labelling of dangerous goods at sea.
IMEC International Maritime Employers' Committee
IMIF International Maritime Industry Forum - a forum for banks and shipbuilders with the purpose of solving problems in connection with surplus tanker tonnage.
IMO International Maritime Organization (London) - UN's maritime authority.
IMPA International Pilots' Association
IMU International Maritime Union (Latin-American seamen's union with US affiliations.)
IN &/OR OVER Goods carried below or on deck
INCLOT(inclot) Including Overtime.
Injection Well Hole drilled to inject water or gas into the reservoir in order to maintain pressure. Also called Service Well.
INMARSAT International Maritime Convention on Communication by Satellite.
INMARSAT International Maritime Satellite Organization (London)
Inside Preventer A type of BOP which is installed on the drill stem.
INSROP International Northern Sea Route Programme - comprehensive, multi-national, multi-disciplinary five-year research programme investigating commercial navigation through the North-East Passage.
Instrument Pig An apparatus with various measuring instruments placed inside the pipeline. Transported along with the oilflow
INTERCARGO International Association of Dry Cargo Shipowners (London) - Opposite number to INTERTANKO.
Intermodal transport Carriage of goods employing various modes of transport, i.e. sea/land, rail/sea, etc., between sender and receiver. Also called Multimodal Transport.
International Labour Organisation Geneva.
INTERTANKO International Association of Independent Tanker Owners (Oslo)
IOE International Organization of Employers
IOPC International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund
IOPP International Oil Pollution Prevention Certificate
IOT (INCLOT) Including overtime
IRS Indian Register of Shipping. ---India Classification Society---
ISF International Shipping Federation (London) - cooperation of maritime employers' associations.
ISM International Safety Management Code
ISMA International Ship Managers' Association
ISO International Standards Organization (London)
ISOA International Support Vessels Owners' Association (London)
ITF International Transport Workers' Federation (London)
ITFW. International Transport Worker’s Federation.
Itinerary List of a ship's ports of call.
ITOPF International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation Ltd. (London) - manages TOVALOP and cooperates closely with CRISTAL.
ITS International Tanker Service - planned cooperation in the market between independent tanker owners.
IU (iu) If Used
IUATUC If used actual time used to count
IUHTAUTC If Used, Half Time Actually used to Count
IWA International Wheat Agreement
IWL Institute Warranty Limits==Geographical limitations to permitted trading areas,drawn up and imposed by underwriters, and commonly applied throughtout the Maritime world.
J (Juliett) On Fire; Keep Clear - I am going to send a message by semaphore
j. & w.o. Jettison and washing overboard.
Jacket The lower part of the production system from the seabed to the lower deck module.
Jackup Movable installation consisting of a large deck with legs which may be jacked up. During operation, the legs are resting on the seabed, and the vessel "jacked up", leaving the deck in secure position high above the surface of the sea. When moved, the legs are retracted and the installation floates. Usually not equipped with own propulsion machinery. (Max. water depths 110 to 120 metres.) Normally used as a drilling rig.
JARC Jones Act Reform Coalition
JDPO Junior Dynamic Positioning Officer
JETTISON The act of throwing goods or pumping cargo overboard to lighten a ship to improve stability in an emergency.
Joint service Two or more shipping companies jointly operating a service.
JR Yugoslav Register Yugoslav Classification Society---
JV Joint venture.
K (Kilo) Desire to Communicate
Kelly The upper square or hexagonal part of the drill stem.
KFK Koordinerende forskningskomitÃ© (Norway) - Coordinating Research Committee.
KI Klasifikasi Indonesia----Indonesia Classification Society---
Kick A sudden increase in the drill mud pressure from below. A kick may in extreme cases develop into a Blow-out.
Kill The increase of the counterpressure in the well, e.g. achieved by using mud with higher specific gravity.
KMT Distance from keel to mast.
Knot Measure of speed for ships, i.e. one nautical mile (1,852 metres) per hour.
Kommandittselskap (K/S) Limited partnership. A form of shipfinancing very popular in Norway before the tax reform in 1991. Now almost obsolete.
KPI Kesatuan Pelant Indonesia - Indonesian seamen's union.
KR Korean Register of Shipping - Korean Ship Classification Society
KT Knot - measure of speed of a ship, equal to one nautical mile (6,080 feet or 1,852 meters) per hour
KTM Keel to Top of Mast - distance from the keel of the Vessel to the top of the mast, also referred to as Airdraft, which indicates the clearance needed for the Vessel to pass under air structures above the waterways.
KTS, k, kn, knt, kt, knot Knot; Knots nautical miles (6080 feet or 1853 metres) per hour.
kWT The main machinery's break-kW + the vessel's gross tonnage (GT) according to the vessel's papers. Used by the NSA when calculating wage levels.
L (Lima) You should stop, I have something important to communicate
L/C Letter of Credit ; Laydays/Canceling: See LAYCAN
L/C/D (l/c/d) Lashed/Secured/Dunnaged.
L/P (l/p) Loading Port.
L3C Last Three Cargoes
LA Los Angeles
LAFTA Latin America Free Trade Association
Lanemetre Used particularly in connection with the transportation of trailers. One lanemetre is one metre of deck, with a width of 2.5 to 3.0 metres.The capacity of ships built for the transportation of new automobiles is normally expressed by the number of cars carried, or by the area of deckspace, in square metres.
LASH Lighter aboard ship (barge carrier).
LASH Lighter Aboard Ship, i.e. ships which can carry lighters "piggy-back" fashion.
LAT Latitude ; Lowest Astronomic Tide: see Chart Datum
Lay Barge or Pipe Laying Barge Vessel laying pipelines on the seabed.
LAYCAN Laydays/Canceling - a spread of dates - e.g.: "Laydays 1st September/Canceling 15th September," between which dates a vessel is to present for loading. Too early and she will probably have to wait. Too late and she risks being canceled by the charterers.
Lay-up Ships are laid-up when rates are too low for profitable trading. Laid-up vessels are moored or anchored with a minimum watch crew on board.
LB Long Beach ; Lower Buchanan
LBP Length Between Perpendiculars - the length of the vessel measured between the forward part of the stern to the after part of the rudder post.
LC (L/C) . letter of credit;London clause;laycan.
LCI Lambert’s Capesize Index.
LCL (lcl) Less than Full Container Load.
Lcr Lowest current rate.
LDO. Light diesel oil.
LDPT. Load Port
LDT (ldt) Light Displacement tonnes
Leasing When a ship is leased, the owner may in fact utilize it as in a bareboat or hire-purchase-C/P, but without entering into a charter-party-contract. The price is agreed between the shipping company (lessee) and the vessel's legal owner - the leasing company (lessor). The agreed fee will normally give the lessor a return on the investment with a profit during the leasing period. When the agreed period expires, the lessee may extend the leasing, but at a reduced fee (e.g. 1/12 of previous fee), or purchase the vessel at its estimated value.
LEFO Land’s end for orders.
LGFM Lond Grain Fixures Market
LGM Lawful General Merchandise
LHAR London, Hull, Amsterdam or Rotterdam.
LIFO (lifo) Liner in, Free out; Last in, First out.
Liner conference Two or more shipping companies operating a service in common between designated areas. Conference partners agree special freight rates and terms for the trade, in order to stabilize market and service.
Liner Pipe Casing which does not reach quite up to the well-head.
Liner service Cargoships operating regular schedules between advertised ports.
Liner Terms; LT The responsibilty and cost of loading,carrying,discharging cargo is that of the shipowner(carrier) from the moment the goods are placed alongside the carrying vessel,until they are fully discharged alongside at their destination port .
Liner Vessel serving a regular defined route or trade, following a published sailing schedule.
LIST The leaning of the vessel to the port or starboard.
LL loadlines; Laden legs.
LLA Long Length Additional
LLMC International Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims
LLT London landed terms.
LM Lane metres.
LMC Lloyd’s machinery certificate.
LMMA London Maritime Arbritation Association.
LNG Liquefied natural gas (carrier).
LO Lubricating oil.
LO/LO Load-on and load-off or Lift-on and lift-off vessel.
LOA Length Overall (of the vessel) The extreme length of the vessel measured from the foremost part to the aftermost part of the hull.
Loading/discharging.e.g L/D 2000/2500Mt
LOC (L/C) Letter of Credit ; Letter Of Compliance
LOF Lloyd’s Open Form. (Salvage Agreement), 1995.
LOF-90 Lloyd's Open Form - standardized salvage contract.
LOF-95. Effective January 1 1995. Revised and updated version of the LOF-90, and reflects changes resulting from the UK Merchant Shipping (Salvage and Pollution) Act 1994. Other changes have also been incorporated in this new LOF-95.
LOFR Letter Of Financial Responsibility
Log Book Official Document recording daily the main details of a voyage,not to be confused with the Log Abstract.
LOG An apparatus for measuring the speed of a vessel through the water. ; An entry made in a log book to record any event or occurrence during the logging period.
LOI Letter of Indemnity - a guarantee issued by the receiver named in the Bill of Lading, Holding the carrier harmless if he is ordered to release the cargo without presentation of original Bill of Lading.
LOLO Lift On/Lift Off - a term describing the method of loading and discharging cargo by ship or shore gear.
Lo-lo-ship Lift on-lift off-ship. Containers or other goods are lifted on board and ashore by cranes.
LORI Letter Of Response Intention
LOT Load On Top - the concept of allowing hydrocarbon material recovered during tank washing to be commingled with the next cargo.
LOU Letter of Undertaking - a guarantee issued by a P & I Club or insurer, in cases where a vessel is involved in an accidents or damage to cargo. The LOU guarantees settlement of any proven claims, thus allowing the vessel to sail without unnecessary delays.
LOW Last open water.
LPD Load port disbursements.
LPG (of a vessel) Liquified petroleum gas or (of a vessel)
LPOC Last Port Of Call
LQT Liverpool quay terms.
LR Lloyds Register of Shipping.--- British (UK) Classification Society---
LRATE Load rate.
LS & D Landing, Storage and Delivery
LS Lumber (timber) summer loadline.
LS; L/S; (or LUMPS) L'sum Lumpsum
LSC Liberian Shipping Council
LSD Lashed Secured Dunnaged
LSD Landing ship dock; landing storage and delivery
LSLSDU Loaded, stowed, lasned, secured, dunnaged and unlashed.
LSWR Low Sulphur Waxy Residue
LT (L/T) Long Ton - ton of 2,240 pounds, equivalent to 1,016 metric tons (M/T) ; Liner Terms - the responsibility and cost of loading, carrying and discharging cargo is that of the carrier, from the moment the goods are placed alongside the carrying vessel in readiness for loading, until discharged alongside at their destination. Time spent cargo-handling is also at the carrier's risk, London terms.
LT (lt) Local Time.
Lt. V Light vessel.
LTBENDS Liner terms, both ends.
LTS (BE) Laytime saved (both ends).
LTS LayTime Saved - dispatch to be paid for laytime saved.
LW Low Water
LW Low Water
LWNA Lumber Winter North Atlantic (loadline).
LWOST Low Water On Ordinary Spring Tides==A measure of water depth at the low water mark on ordinary.==
LWT (lwt) Lightweight tonne.
LYCN Laycan (Layday Cancelling Date)
M (Mike) I am Stopped ; I have a doctor on board
M Metre; measure; measurement.
M/E Main Engine
M/M Minimum/ Maximum.
M/R Mate’s receipt.
M/T (MT) Motor Tanker
M/V (MV) Motor Vessel
MAA Mina Al Ahmadi
Management Company A company (often third party) assuming responsibility for the operation and administration of a vessel, i.e. crewing, technical operations and maintenance.
Manifest List of all cargo on board (Cargo Manifest). Term used also for passenger list on cruise vessels, passenger ferries, etc
MAP Mono-ammonium phosphate
MARAD Maritime Administration (USA) - authority under the US department for Trade. Handles subsidies etc. to American shipyards and shipping companies.
Marine Riser Large diametre casing, consisting of many pipe sections coupled together, normally with floating elements on the outside. Installed between the Marine BOP and the drilling rig.
MARINTEK Norsk Marinteknisk Forskningsinstitutt A/S (Trondheim) - Norwegian maritime research institution.
Maritime inquiry An inquiry conducted by maritime and legal authorities following an accident or near-accident at sea, resulting in a maritime declaration.The purpose of such hearings is to uncover the cause of accident or mishap. The inquiry is primarily conducted between members of the crew, but may also involve bystanders who may shed light on the events. The maritime inquiry serves three purposes according to Norwegian maritime law: -Enables maritime authorities to consider amending or improving existing rules and regulations in order to prevent similar accidents. -Determines whether or not someone should be prosecuted for criminal neglect or breach of rules. -Uncovers liabilities in connection with insurance claims.
MARPOL The International Convention for Prevention of Pollution from Ships (London) - 1973 (as modified by the Protocol of 1978)
MATS Material(s), (i.e. dunnage).
MB Merchant Broker
MB Molded Breath - the breath of the hull at the widest part, measured between the outer surfaces of the frames.
MBT Motor Blocks Turning
MBTE Methyl, butyl, tertiaer ether
MCT Marine Custody Transfer
MCTM Marine Custody Transfer Measurement - the measurement activity involving a marine custody transfer (MCT)
MD Mean Draft - the average of the drafts measured at the bow and the stern. ; Molded Depth - the depth measured between the top of the keel, or lower surface of the frame at the center line, and the top of the upper deck beam at the gunwale.
MDO.(mdo) Marine diesel oil.
MED Mediterranean Sea
MEG Middle East Gulf.
MEIF Mandatory Excess Insurance Facility - Norwegian-Swedish-Greek proposal to solve the COFR-question.
MEM (mem) Moment.
MEP Marine Environmental Protection (U.S.)
MEPC Maritime Environment Protection Committee (IMO, London)
MERCOSUR Regional political trade organisation comprising Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.
Merger The joining of two or more (shipowning) companies.Merger - the joining of two or more (shipowning) companies.
MERPAC Merchant Marine Personnel Advisory Committee
MF Meter Factor
MFO Marine Fuel Oil
MGO Main Gas Oil
MH Main hatch.
MHWN Mean high water neaps: and
MHWS Mean High water Springs: and
MICS. Member of The Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers, London.
MIN/MAX Minimum/Maximum - refers to fixed cargo size - e.g.: "10,000 tonnes min./max.".
MIO Marine Inspections Office
MITS Maritim information technology.
ML Motor launch.
MLLW Mean low low water.
MLW Mean low water.
MLWN Mean low water neaps==Average depths of water available at the times of low and of high tides during periods of Neap Tides.
MLWS Mean low water Springs==Average depths of water available at the times of low and of high tides during periods of SpringTides. Some charts are calculated against these "averages" rather than based on chart datum.
MMC Merchant Marinersâ€™ Credentials
MMPD Maximum Most Probable Discharge (U.S., related to oil spill)
MMS Minerals Management Service (U.S.)
MOA Memorandum of Agreement--- A contract form specifying the terms and conditions covering the sale and purchase of a merchantship--
MODU Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit
MOL More Or Less - refers to a cargo size option - say, "10,000 tonnes, 5 per cent more or less" - usually clarifying whose option to select the final cargo size
MOLCHOP More Or Less Charterer's Option
MOLCHOPT (MOLCHOP, MOLCO) More or Less Charterers Option,refers to cargo quantity.
MOLOO More or less owner's option - a margin which the shipowner has for the amount of cargo a vessel should carry. I.e. "30,000 tons 5 per cent moloo" means that the vessel can load between 28,500 and 31,500 tons.
Monkey Board Platform in the drilling tower where the Derrick Man is handling the drill stem.
Monopod Type of rig where the foundation consists of a cylindric stem from the seabed to the surface.
MOP Muriate of Potash (fertiliser)
MOS (mos) Months.
Motion Compensator Equalizes level variations during drilling from floating rigs or cranes.
MOU Memorandum Of Understanding
Mousehole Hole in the Derrick platform where the next section of drill stem is placed awaiting being coupled to the drill stem.
MPA Marine Preservation Association (supports MSRC)
MPMS Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standards (API)
MPP(mpp) Multi-purpose vessel.
MPSV Multipurpose Service Vessel
MR Mates Receipt
MRR Maritime Regulatory Reform
MRX Medium range cross-purpose tanker.
MS Motor shop; motor spirit; machinery survey.
MS Motor Ship
MSA Merchant Shipping Act.
MSC Manchester Ship Canal;Maritime Safety Committee (of IMO).
MSC Maritime Safety Committee (IMO, London)
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
MSIS Marine Safety Information System
MSO Marine Safety Office (USCG)
MSRC Marine Spill Response Corp., The. (OSRO)
MSV Motor support vessel.
MT Metric tons (tonne); (Mts); ---A tonne of 2,204 pounds or 1,000 kilograms,equivalent to 0.9842 Long tons-==; multimodal transport; main terms; motor tanker.
MTC Maritime Transport Committee (OECD)
MTL Mean tidal level.
MTN, mtn, Mts Metric tons
MTO Multimodal transport operator.
MTPA Million metric tonnes per annum.
Mud Line The sea bed, the borderline between the water and solid sediments.
Mud Pit Tank containing the drill mud.
Mud Weight The weight of the drill mud in pounds per gallon. Light mud: 8 pounds/gln; heavy mud: 14 pounds/gln.
MUI Maritime Union of Indian Officers
Multipurpose ship General cargo ship which can also carry containers.
MV Motor vessel
N (November) No (negative)
N CONT (NO CONT) North Continent.
n.E. Not east of.
n.e.p.(NEP) Not elsewhere provided.
n.m. Nautical mile.
n.N.(N/N) Not north of
N.O.P. Net operating profit.
n.S. Not south of.
n.W. Not west of.
N.Y.T. New York Standard Time.
N/B, NB. New building.
N/t New terms (grain trade).
NA (na) North Atlantic; North America; nearest approach.
NAABSA Not Always Afloat But Safe Aground - most owners will agree only that their vessel (especially deep-sea vessels) proceed only to ports where there is sufficient water to remain always afloat, so as to avoid the risk of hull damage. There are areas and ports, however, where water depth is restricted but, the bottom being soft mud, it is customary for ships to safely lie on the bottom at certain states of the tide - e.g.: River Plate. In such a case, owners will probably agree to proceed NAABSA.
NAABSA(naabsa) Not Always Afloat but Safely Aground
NAFTA North-American Free Trade Agreement
NARCO National Response Corporation (OSRO)
NASCO Norwegian Asian Seafarers' Conference
NATO North-Atlantic Treaty Organization - Western defence alliance.
NAVSAC Navigation Safety Advisory Council
NCB National Cargo Bureau
NCP National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (U.S.)
NCSA North Coast South America
NDFCAPMQS No Deadfreight For Charterer's Account Provided Minimum Quantity Supplied.
Neap Tides The opposite of Spring Tides (which see). Neap Tides occur when the tidal range is at its lowest - in other words during periods of relatively low high tides, and of relatively high low tides. A vessel that is prevented from berthing or from sailing with a full cargo or, indeed, is trapped in a berth by the onset of neap tides, is said to have been "neaped".
Neobig Not East of but including Greece.
NES(n.e.s) Not elsewhere specified.
NET CAP Net Capacity
NET OBQ OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks.
Net Tonnage NT (for passenger ships the formula is added: where V is the volume of the cargo holds, D is the distance between the ship's bottom and the uppermost deck, d is the draught, N1 is the number of cabin passengers, and N2 is the number of deck passengers.
NETAC The National Environmental Technology Applications Center (Pittsburgh, PA)
Nett Terms Opposite to Gross Terms. Cargo-handling is the responsibility and for the account of the charterer or the cargo seller.
New terms (grain trade).
NEWCI Not East of West Coast of Italy
NEWCT North East of West Coast Italy.
NFD Norwegian Friendship Development - Norwegian recruiting office in Manila.
NH North of (Cape) Hatteras
NHP Nominal horse power.
NIDDESC Navy/Industry Digital Data Exchange Standards Committee
NIOSH National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
NIS Norsk Internasjonalt Skipsregister (Bergen) - Norwegian International Ship Register.
NIST National Institute of Standards & Technology
NJ New Jason clause in C/P.
NK / NKK Nippon Kaiji Kyokai ( Japanese Ship Classification Society)
NMB Norsk Maritimt Befalskartell - (see FENSO)
NMPD Nautical miles per day.
NMU National Maritime Union (USA)
NNGWB Not north of George Washington Bridge (i.e. New York).
NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - (A U.S. agency incorporating the National Weather Service)
NOE Not Otherwise Enumerated
NOKUS-company (NOrsk-Kontrollert Utenlandsk Selska Company established in a country where corporate taxes are less than two thirds of Norwegian corporate tax, and Norwegian interests own or control minimum 50 per cent of the shares. Norwegian participants in such companies are taxed in Norway for their share of profits (Â§7 in Norwegian Tax Law).
NOLA New Orleans, Louisiana
NON REV Non Reversible Laytime
NOP Notice Of Protest - a letter issued by any participant in a voyage citing any condition with which issue is taken. This serves as a written record that the particular action or finding was questioned at the time of occurrence. For example a declaration made by the Master before a notary public or consular official when through stress of weather, there has been or the master fears that there might have been, damage to the vessel or cargo, or occurrences that exceeded or breached the warranties in the Charter Party. Copies are frequently demanded by insurance underwriters in the event of a claim.
NOPAC North Pacific (Ports)
NOPEF Norsk Olje- og Petrokjemisk Fagforbund, Stavanger - Norwegian trade union for oil industry workers.
NOR (N/R), (nor) Notice of Readiness.
NOR T & A Notice of Readiness tendered and accepted.
NOR Notice Of Readiness - notice served by the Master to inform the terminal/charterer that the vessel is ready in all respects to load or discharge cargo.
NOR Skipsregisteret, Bergen. Often termed Norsk Ordin'rt Register - the Norwegian Ordinary Ship Register.
NORDKOMPASS Nordisk Komité for Passasjerskip - Nordic forum for passengership and ferry companies and shipowners' associations.
NORT Notice of Readiness tendered.
NOS Not Otherwise Specified
NOV Net Observed Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S&W, and free water at observed temperature and pressure.
NPA National Petroleum Association - usually with reference to ASTM D-155 color scale, for instance "undarker than 2.5 NPA", which can be described as "extra lemon pale"
NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (U.S.)
NPFC National Pollution Funds Center
NPK Nitro Phosphatic Kompound
NPRA National Petroleum Refiners' Association
NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (U.S.)
NR Northern Range of Ports (in US)
NR T (nrt) Not register tonnage.
NR Norges Rederiforbund (Oslo) - Norwegian Shipowners' Association (NSA).
NRC National Response Center (USCG)
NRDA National Resource Damage Assessment (pronounced: NERDA)
NRDAM/GLE Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Great Lakes Environments
NRDC The National Resources Defense Council (U.S.)
NRT(nrt) National Response Team (U.S.) ; Net Registered or Register Tonnage
NS No sparring.
NS Norsk Styrmandsforening - the former Norwegian association for ships' mates.
NSA see NR
NSF National Strike Force (U.S.)
NSF Norsk Sjomannsforbund - Norwegian Seafarers' Union, (also Norsk Skibsforerforbund - Norwegian Association of Master Mariners)
NSFCC National Strike Force Coordination Center (U.S.)
NSOAF North Sea Offshore Authority Forum.
NSRP National Shipbuilding Research Program
NSU National Seafarers' Union (Sri Lanka)
NSV Net Standard Volume - the total volume of all petroleum liquids, excluding S&W and free water, corrected by the appropriate temperature correction factor (Ct1) for the observed temperature and API gravity, relative density or density to a standard temperature such as 60ÂºF or 15ÂºC and also corrected by the applicable pressure correction factor (Cp1) and meter factor.
NSW New South Wales (Australia)
NT Net tonnage; neap tides; new tonnage.
NT Net Tonnage - the volumetric cargo capacity of a ship expressed on the basis of 100 cubic feet tot he ton. On passenger vessels it also includes space used by passengers.
NTC Not to count.
NTC Norwegian Training Center (Manila)
NTCEIU Not to count, even if used.
NTCEUU Not to count, unless used.
NTIS National Technical Information Service (U.S.)
NTSB National Transportation Safety Board
NUMAST British trade union for officers and crew.
NUS National Union of Seamen - British seamen's union.
NUSI National Union of Seamen of India
NV Norske Veritas-----Norwegian Classification Society---
NVIC Navigation and Vessel Inspection Circular
NVOC Non Vessel Owning Company
NVOCC Non Vessel Owning Common Carrier
NWE North West Europe
NWS National Weather Center
NY (NYK) New York.
NYNNGWB New York Not North of George Washington Bridge
NYPE,(nype) New York Produce Exchange Charter Party Time Charter Form
O (Oscar) Man overboard
O.O. Owner’s option.
O/A(oa) of vessel OK Over age of vessel okay.
O/B On board.
O/C Ore Carrier ; Open Charter
O/D Over deck.
O/O Oil/ore (or ore/oil) carrier.
O/S(o/s) Out Standing.
OAAOOP On arrival at or of the port.
OABE (oabe) Owners agents both ends
OAFSP On arrival first sea pilot.
OAHPS On arrival harbour pilot station
OAL Overall length (same as LOA).
OAPEC Organisation of Arabic Petroleum Exporting Countries.
OAU Organisation of African Unity
OBO Ore Bulk Oil - a vessel constructed in such a way that it may carry various bulk cargoes of ore, oil, grains and other bulk products.
OBO-carrier Vessel built for the carriage of diversified bulkcargoes (i.e. Oil/Bulk/Ore).
OBQ On Board Quantity - refers to cargo, bunkers or fresh water on board the ship prior to commencement of a charter, a voyage or loading operation. Also cargo tank quantities of any material aboard a ship after deballasting, immediately prior to loading. Can include oil, oil/water emulsion, water, non-liquid hydrocarbons and slops. (NET OBQ:OBQ less free water in cargo, slop tanks and lines, and water in suspension in slop tanks)
Oc B/L Ocean bill of lading.
OCC Outward clearance certificate; Oil Co-ordination Committee.
OCIMF Oil Companies' International Marine Forum (London)
ODM Oil discharge monitor
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
OECD Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development - 25 member countries.
Offshore activities For shipowning companies, O.A. include activities connected with the exploration for, development of and operation of oil and gas fields at sea. Most important are: Collecting seismic data, test drilling, field development, towing and anchor handling, the supply service, transportation of equipment and modules, heavylifts, diving operations and underwater work, the use of ROVs, pipelaying, operation of floatels and construction jobs. Salvage and rescue operations are also important aspects of this. The loading of oil tankers offshore by means of buoys or fixtures on the seabed, is still another feature of Norwegian offshore activities.
Offshore service vessels Common term for specialized vessels used during the exploration, development and production phases of oil and gas at sea.
OFS Oljearbeidernes Fellessammenslutning (Stavanger) - Norwegian federation of trade unions in the oil industry.
OFU Offshoren'ringens Forhandlingsutvalg - negotiating committee for the offshore industry.
OGLA Offshore Galveston Lightering Area
O-H (O/H) Off-hire.
OHBC Open hatch bulk carrier
OIC Officer In Charge
Oil spill compensation Compensation for oil spills is internationally regulated by two conventions - The Civil Liability Convention - CLC - (i.e. International Convention on Civil Liability for Oil Pollution Damage - 1969) regulating the shipowners' liability, and The Fund Convention (i.e. International Convention on the Establishment of an International Fund for Oil Pollution Damage, 1971), with a fund financed by the cargo owners (oil companies) paying compensation if the shipowner cannot be held responsible, or if compensation paid is not adequate, with a maximum limitation clause.
Oil String The last section of the drill pipe to be cemented in place. Also called Inner Conductor or Production Casing.
Oil-tanker Ship carrying crude oil or refined products. If a ship is equipped to carry several types of cargo simultaneously, the ship type is called Parcel tanker. A shuttle tanker is a tanker carrying oil from offshore oil fields to terminals. An oil tanker especially built for the transportation of refined oilproducts, often with tanks painted or coated on the inside, is called a product carrier.
OLF Oljeindustriens Landsforening (Stavanger) - Federation of oil industry employers.
OMB Office of Management and Budget (U.S.)
OMS Office of Marine Safety (U.S.)
On Stream The phase where the oil/gas production is started through the main pipe.
OO (oo) Owners Option.
OPA (US) Owners Protecting Agent or Oil Pollution Act (USA), 1990
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Vienna)
Ore/oil carrier Ship with separate cargo holds for ore cargoes. When the ship is carrying oil, the ore holds may also be filled with oil, in order to utilize the deadweight capacity to the fullest.
OSB One safe berth.
OSD/CSD Open shelter deck or closed shelter deck (vessel).
OSH Open Shelter Deck
OSP One safe port.
OSPB One safe port or berth.
OSSL Oljeserviceselskapenes Landsforening - The Association of Norwegian Oil Industry Service Companies.
OSV Offshore supply vessel.
OSV Offshore Support Vessel
OWS;OWNS (owns) Owners
P (Papa) The Blue Peter - all aboard, vessel is about to proceed sea. (At sea) your
lights are out or burning badly
P + C (P AND C) Private and confidential.
P&I Protection and Indemnity Insurance
p.f.t. Per freight ton.
p.p. (pp) Picked ports.
p.p.i. Policy proof of interest.
p.t. (PT) Per ton; private terms.
P/C; pc; PCGO(pcgo) Part cargo, parcel cargo.
P/s; Pls; PLS Please.
PA (P/A) Particular average.
PAD Pacific Australia Direct
PANDI; P & I; pi Protection and Indemnity's (Club) name.
Panmax (Panamax) The largest bulk carrier which can pass through the Panama Canal fully loaded (approximately 80 ,000 dwt.).
Parcel tanker see Oil-tanker.
PASTUS;PUS Past Us (ie.on commission)
Pax Abbreviation for passenger(s). Used in cruiseshipping and on passenger ferries.
Pay zone The part of the reservoir which may be exploited economically.
PB Permanent bunkers; poop and bridge.
PBF Poop, bridge and forecastle.
PBOS NATO Planning Board for Ocean Shipping (Brussels)
PC Period of Charter, Port Clearance
PC Port Consumption
PCC Pure car carrier.
PCNT Panama Canal Net Tonnage.
PCO (PICO) Port in charterer’s option.
PCT(pct) Percentage; Percent.
PCTC Pure car and truck carrier.
PD Port dues.
PDM Punta De Madeira.
PDPR; pdpr Per day pro-rata.
Penetration Rate The drill bit's speed through the sediments.
Per calender month (hire).
PER SE By Itself
PERDIEM By the Day
Permeability The sediment's ability to let hydrocarbons pass through.
PF(pf) Pro Forma.
PG (P/G) Persian Gulf (also, referred as AG = Arabian Gulf)
PHC Port handling charges.
PHD Per hatch day.
PHO Port health officer.
PHPD Per Hatch Per Day
PIC Person in charge.
PICO Port In Charterer's Option.
PIOPIC P & I Oil Pollution Indemnity Clause.
Pipe-Laying Barge or Lay Barge Vessel constructed for the laying of pipes on the sea bed.
PLT(plt) Per Long Ton
PMO Passing Muscat outbound
PMOU Paris Memorandum of Understanding - European port-state control
PMT (pmt) Per Metric Ton.
POA Place of acceptance.
POB Pilot on board.
poc (POC) Port of call.
pod (POD) Port of Discharge
POEA Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (Manila)
POL Petroleum, oil and lube Or Port of Loading
Pooling Cargo or profit sharing by cooperating companies in lines or liner conferences.
POPS Purchase Options.
por (POR) Port of refuge.
Pounds per square inch; pre shipment inspection.
PPROPOSE.(ppropose); Please Propose
PPS Pumps (capacity in cubic metres).
PPSE (ppse) Please Propose, Propose ( i.e. in offering a piece of business in chartering)
PPT(ppt) Prompt==Indicates that a cargo or a ship is available promptly==
PPUK Picked ports of U.K
PQ Province of Quebec.
PR (pr Pro Rata.
PR Polski Rejestr Polish Classification Society
PRC People’s Republic of China.
Primary Recovery The initial extraction phase when the oil/gas is emitted naturally from the reservoir.
PROBO Combined Products and Bulk Carrier
Production Ship Specialized ship pumping oil through flexible pipelines from the seabed.
Production Unit Platform equipped for the production of oil and gas.
Protectionism Flag state protection of own shipping by the elimination of certain competitive elements (see also Flag discrimination).
pssg (PSSG) Passing.
PST(pst) Per Short Ton; Pacific Standard Time.
PSU Polish Seafarers' Union (formerly S-FUF or MR).
PSV Platform Supply Vessel.
pt B Port bunkers.
PWH Per Workable Hatch.
PWHD Per Workable Hatch Day.
PWWD (pwwd) Per Weather Working day.
R (Romeo) The way is off my ship. You may feel your way past me
R of T Range of tide.
R.D. Running days.
R/E Rate of exchange
R/P Return to port for orders.
R/T Revenue ton.
R/V (RV) Round voyage.
RAPL Rotterdam – Amsterdam Pipeline.
RAS Radio Advisory Service (UK)
Rate The offered/agreed price for the transportation of goods.
Ratio between Gross Tonnage/Net Tonnage/Deadweight Approximate conversion figures: 1 NT = 1.7 GT 1 GT = 1.5 dwt. These figures are applicable for tankers and dry cargo vessels up to approximately 25,000 dwt., but not for reefers, ro-ro-ships, passenger ships, etc. For large tank- and bulkships (approximately 100,000 dwt. and above) 1GT is approximately 2 dwt.
RBAY Richards Bay
RBCT Richards Bay Coal Terminal.
RC Running Costs The expenses of operating a merchant ship.
RCN Research octane number.
RCVR (rcvrs) Receivers.
RDC (rdc) Running down clause.
Re-cap Recapitulation (summary of main Chartering(negotiation) terms/points).
REDEL(redel) Re-delivery of Vessel on Time Charter
Reefer Vessel Vessel with refrigerated cargo hold(s).
Register ton Old term for the measuring of ships, not to be used anymore. (One register ton is 100 cubic feet or 2.93 cubic metres).
RELET To sub-charter ( a chartered vessel)
REV. Reversible(as in Laytime)
RGDS (rgds); BRGDS (brgds) Regards; Best Regards
RI Registro Italiano Navale- Italian Classification Society---
RLF Rederienes Landsforening - Association of Norwegian short-sea shipowners.
RNR (rnr) . Rate not reported
Roads (roads) Anchorage Area
ROB Remaining on board.
ROCKPHOS Phosphate Rock.
RORO (ro-ro) Roll-on/roll-off (vessel).
Ro-ro-ship (Roll on - Roll off) The cargo is driven on board and ashore, either by means of own engine (cars/trailers), or by means of special trucks. There are three main areas: -Ro-ro-ship operating in lines carries containers, pallets, flats or general cargo, and any type of cargo that can be driven on board. -Ro-ro-ship for the transportation of new automobiles (specialised: Pure Car Carrier - PCC), may also carry other rolling cargo. -Ro-ro-ferries carrying a combination of rolling cargo (cars/lorries/trailers) and passengers.
Roughneck Worker in the oil and gas industry.
ROV Remote Operated Vehicle
RPM Revolutions (or rotations) per minute.
RPS Revolutions (or rotations) per second.
RPT (rpt) Repeat.
RS Register of Shipping of the Russia-- Russian Classification Society-
RT Revenue Tonne
RT Right time of ship departure/arrival or rye terms.
RTBA Rate to be agreed.
RTD Round trip distance
S (Sierra) My engines are going full speed astern
S & P (S AND P). Sale and purchase
S . Summer loadline; south
S d/k Shelter deck
S.S. & C. Same sea and country coast.
S/a Safe arrival; subject to approval.
S/A (S.A.) South America; South ; Australia; South Africa; safe anchorage; Salvage Association.
S/F;SOF; S.O.F.(s.o.f.) Statement of facts.
S/N Shipping note.
S/S Suez laden, Suez ballast.
S+R . Signing and Releasing
S+R B/L Signing and Releasing Bills Of Lading.
SA Safe Anchorage
SA/SHEX Saturday afternoon/Sundays and holidays excepted.(Excluded)
SABIO. Stem and Berth in order
SADCC South African cooperation forum
SAFTA South American Free Trade Association
SAR Search and Rescue
SATPM Saturday P.M.
SATSHEX; SSHEX Saturdays, Sundays and holidays excepted(Excluded) Saturdays PM Sundays and holidays excepted(Excluded), Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Excluded
SB (sb) Safe berth.
SBE Standby engine.
SBL Seabed Logging Vessel
SBM Single buoy mooring (for oil tankers); soyabean meal (cargo).
SBT Segregated ballast tanks.
SBT Segregated Ballast Tanks - tanks in a tanker solely used for ballast.
SCNT Suez Canal Net Tonnage.
SD(sd) Single decker; self-discharging.
SDBC (sdbc) (sid bc) Single Decker bulk carrier
SDPO Senior Dynamic Positioning Officer
SDR Special Drawing Rights (IMF).
SDR Special drawing rights
SDSTBC.(sdstbc) Single Decker Self-trimming bulk carrier ===Of a vessel's description=
SDWT (sdwt) Summer deadweight.
SEA South east Asia
SEATO South-East Asian Treaty Organization - defence alliance.
Seismic ship Vessel mapping gelogical structures in the seabed by firing air guns transmitting sound waves into the bottom of the sea. The ecco of the shot is captured by listening devices/hydrophones being towed behind the vessel. A seismic ship provides data which is an intrinsic part of the material determining if and when a test drilling should be initiated.
SELFD Self Discharging (of a vessel)
Semisubmersible Movable installation consisting of a deck on stilts, fastened to two or more pontoons. When in operation, the pontoons are filled with water and lowered beneath the surface. The installation is normally kept in position by a number of anchors, but may also be fitted with dynamic positioning equipment (DPE). Usually fitted with own propulsion machinery (max. water depths 600 - 800 metres).
SEMI-TRAILERS Are usually 12.0 meter flatbed road trailers
SF .(sf) Stowage factor; Summer Freeboard; San Francisco
SFA Securities and Futures Authority
SFS(sfs) Sun Flowers.
SFT Statens Forurensningstilsyn - Norwegian Pollution Authority.
SG Specific gravity.
SH Second Half
Shelterdeck A deck above the vessel's main deck not included in the gross tonnage. Originally a lightweight structure to shelter the cargo on the main deck from adverse weather conditions. A closed shelterdecker is constructed to allow access through the hatches to the 'tweendeck, taking cargo on one or both levels.
SHEX Sundays and holidays excepted.(excluded)
SHEXEIU Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used both ends.=not to count.
SHEXEIU Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used.
SHEXEIUBE Sundays and holidays excepted, even if used both end==not to count).
SHEXUU Sundays and holidays excepted, unless used.
SHINC Sundays, Holidays Included
Shipbroker Person who - on behalf of shipowner/shipper - negotiates a deal for the transportation of cargo at an agreed price. Shipbrokers are also active when shipping companies negotiate the purchasing and selling of ships, both secondhand tonnage and newbuilding contracts.
Short Sea Shipping Short distance international trade. Commonly used for trading between countries in the European Union.
SHU Shuaibu (port).
Shuttle tanker Buoy-loader - see Oil tanker.
SIGGTO Society of International Gas Tankers and Terminal Operators
SIØS Norwegian center for maritime economics (Bergen).
SIRE Ship Inspection Report Programme
SITPRO Simplification of International Trade Procedures (Board).
SIU Seafarers' International Union (USA)
SKO Superior kerosene oil.
SKOR South Korea
Slop chest Goods stocked by the Chief Steward or Purser, sold for private use or consumption by the crew.
SLT Sludge Tank.
SMC Safety Management Certificate.
SOB Shipped on board.
SOC Shipper Owned Container
SOF (sof) Statement of Facts
SOLAS International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea (1974/78).
SOUS PALAN(Sous Palan) Under hook--cargo will be brought alongside the carrying vessel--ie under her "hooks"----free of expence to the cargo buyer or the carrier.
SP (sp) Safe Port
SPASS Skaw - Passero (range)
SPD Speed, Ship pays dues
SPD/CONS. Speed and Consumption.==eg spd/cons (of the vls) on abt 25.0 mt===
SPM Single point mooring.
Spotrate Rate for single voyage based on the market situation on the day.
SPT;SPOT;(spt) Spot (ie a Cargo or a Vessel is immediately avaliable)
SRBL Signing and Releasing Bill of Lading
SRF Sveriges Redareforening, Gothenburg - Swedish Shipowners' Association.
SS (ss) Special Survey;Steamship; Service speed.
SSHEX (or SATSHEX)
SSHINC (or SATSHINC) Saturdays, Sundays, Holidays Included
SSW (ssw) Summer salt water.
Stand-by Vessel Ship permanently stationed in the vicinity of an installation with the task of evacuating the rig-crew in an emergency. Also carrying out guard duty keeping other ships away from the installation.
STBC (stbc) Self-trimming bulk carrier.
STCW International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping (IMO, London)
STEM (Stem) Refering to the readiness of cargo which is often a prerequisite to the fixing of a vessel.
Stevedore Dockworker handling loading/discharging. Term also used on companies delivering such services.
STUFT Ships Taken Up From Trade - merchant vessels chartered by the military.
Sub . Substitute
Sub Dets Subject Details.
Sub Stem Subject Stem==i.e subject to the cargo availabilty on the required dates of shipment being confirmed.==
Submersible Movable installation constructed for drilling operations in shallow waters, where it is lowered until it rests on the seabed (max. water depth 30 - 40 metres).
Subsidiarity principle EU- rule that decisions should be taken on the lowest possible level, e.g. that any case should be decided nationally.
Suezmax The largest tank vessel which can pass through the Suez Canal fully loaded (120,000 -165,000 dwt.).
SUNAMAM Brazilian shipping organization representing the authorities.
Supercargo Person employed by shipowner or shipping company/charterer of a ship or a shipper of goods to supevise cargo handling operations. Sometimes called Superintendent. The Supercargo was formerly enlisted as a crew member; now stationed in ports.
Supply ship Vessel transporting stores and equipment to drilling rigs or installations being built or in the production phase. Often called Straight Supply, or Platform Supply Vessel (PSV).
SUR Seafarers' Union of Russia, Moscow
SV Sailing vessel.
SW Salt water; shipper’s weight.
SWAD Salt Water Arrival Draft(Draught)
SWATH Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull - fast and economical hull design, primarily used for highspeed ferries, etc.
SWDD Salt water departure draft.
SWL(swl) Safe working load (of cranes, derricks).
SWSD Salt Water Sailing Draft(Draught)
SWW(sww) Single Swinging Winches.
T (Tango) Do not pass ahead of me
T Tropical loadline
T/C(t/c or tc); T/C Trip (TCT) (tct) Time Charter; Time charter trip
T/C-trip The ship is hired for one voyage, but under T/C terms.
T/P Trans Pacific.
T/S Time sheet; transshipment.
TA Round Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TA Trans Atlantic
TACKLE Any combination of ropes and blocks the multiply power. The equipment on a vessel used to perform working tasks on the vessel.
TAFHEX Thursday afternoons Fridays and holidays excepted.
TAFTA Discussions between USA and the EU concerning a Transatlantic Free Trade Area
Tallyman Controls the cargo going into and out of the vessel. Checks that volume and number tallies with the manifests.
Tanker Ship carrying liquid bulk cargoes.
TAPA Trans-Alaska Pipeline Act
TAPS Trans Alaska Pipeline System
TARV - Trans Atlantic Round Voyage Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TARV (TA R/V) Trans Atlantic Round Voyage
TAT EPA Technical Assist Team
TBA To be advised.
TBD To be declared.
TBMA To be mutually agreed.
TBN To be Nominated/To be Named.or To be narrowed
TBRN; TRND . To be re-named.
TC (T/C, t/c) Time charter.
TCE Time charter equivalent.
TCH (tch) Time charter hire.
TCM Convention on the International Combined Transport of Goods.
TCT (tct) Time charter Trip.
TCY Time charter yield
TDK(tdk) Tween decker.(of a Vessel)
TDW (tdw) Tons deadweight.
TECH Toxic, explosive, corrosive and hazardous (dangerous cargo)
TELCON(telcon) Telephone Conversation.
Tension Leg Platform Floating platform or loading buoy fastened to the seabed with vertical chains or stays etc. , kept in position by its own buoyancy.
TEU Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit. The container carrying capacity of a vessel, expressed in the number of TEUs it can load (standard containers of 20x8x8 feet).
TFW Tropical fresh water loadline.
THC Terminal handling charges,
TIB Trimmed in bunkers.
Time-Charter (T/C) The hiring of a vessel for a specified period of time.
TIP Taking inward pilot.
TIR Transport Internationale Routier - International customs' convention.
TL Turkish LLoyd ----- Turkish Classification Society---
TMK (tmk) Tonnage mark.
TNC Time to next cargo
TNGE (tnge) Tonnage.
Tonkilometre The transportation of one ton cargo over a distance of one kilometre.
Toolpusher Foreman on a drilling rig.
TOTCOM (ttl comm) Total commission.
TOVALOP Tanker Owners' Voluntary Agreement Concerning Liabililty for Oil Pollution (London)
TP Time in port.
TPC. Tons per centimeter (immersion) of a vessel's description.
TPCM Tons per cubic metre.
TPD Tons per day.
TPI (tpi) Tons per inch.
TPRV (TP R/V) Trans Pacific Round Voyage.
TR (tr) Tons registered.
Tramp shipping Ships trading where they can get cargo.
Trunk Line The main oil pipeline.
TS Time at sea.
TSP Triple super phosphate
TST Topside tank.
TT (tt) Turn Time; Telegraphic transfer; That; TankTop.
TTBE.(ttbe) Turn Time Both Ends.
TTL (ttl) Total.
TUAC Trade Union Advisory Committee - advisory committee representing employees in the OECD.
TUB. . Tubarao
TWD(twD) Tween Decker.
TWHD Tons per working or Workable hatch per day.
TYT (tyt) Thanks your telex.
U (Uniform) You are standing into danger
U.K.f.o. United Kingdom for orders.
U.K.H.A.D. United Kingdom and Le Havre-Antwerp-Dunkirk range.
U.K.H.H. United Kingdom and Le Havre-Hamburg range.
U/D (u/d); U/on deck Under deck; Under or on deck.
UGT Union General de Trabajadores - Spanish TUC.
UK/Cont (B.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Bordeaux-Hamburg range).
UK/Cont (G.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Gibraltar-Hamburg range).
UK/Cont (H.H.) United Kingdom or Continent (Le Havre-Hamburg range).
UK/CONT B/H United Kingdom/Continent Bordeaux/Hamburg range
UKC United Kingdom or Continent
ULCC Ultra Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker of 300,000+ dwt.
Ullage Distance from surface of (oil)cargo to underside of deck--i.e.--refering to empty space above cargo left to allow for expansion for heating(oil) during the voyage.
Umbilical Actually the "umbilical cord" - lifeline with air, hot water and other necessities connecting diver/diving bell with the mother ship or rig.
UNCITRAL United Nations’ Commission on International Trade Law.
UNCLOS United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (Geneva)
UNIDO United Nations Industrial Development Organization
USAC United States Atlantic Coast.
USAC United States Atlantic Coast
USC (usc) Unless sooner commenced.
USCG United States Coast Guard.
USCG U.S. Coast Guard
USD (US$) United State Dollar.
USEC (USEA) United States East Coast.
USG United States Gulf (of Mexico)
USG;US GULF. United States Gulf of Mexico, U S Gulf.
USMC US Maritime Commission
USNH United States North of (Cape) Hatteras (northern range).
USNH United States North of Hatteras
USNP United States North Pacific.
USSH United States South of (Cape) Hatteras.
USWC (USWE) United States West Coast.
USWC United States West Coast
UU (uu) Unless Used
UU/IUATUTC Unless Used/If used (in which Case) Actual Time Used To Count
UUATUTC Unless Used (Which Case) Actual Time Used To Count
UUIWCTAUTC Unless Used In Which Case Time Actually Used To Count
V (Victor) I require assistance (not distress)
V/C (v/c) Voyage charter
V/M Very Much.
VDR Verband Deutscher Reeder - German Shipowners' Association.
VGO Vacuum gas oil.
VLCC Very Large Crude Carrier - oil tanker between 200,000 and 300,000 dwt.
VLOO Very large ore/oiler (carrier). (>200,000 dwt)
VLPC Very Large Product Carrier. (200,000 dwt)
VOC Vessel operating carrier.
Voyage-Charter Contract of carriage where the charterer pays for the use of the vessel's cargo spaces for one or more voyages. Payment is calculated per ton goods carried. The owner pays all operating costs.
VPD Vessel Pays Dues
VTMS Vessel traffic management system.
VTS Vessel Traffic System
W (Whiskey) I require medical assistance
4 X W WCCON / WIFPON /WIPON / WIBON;
W Worldscale; Winter loadline mark.
W/I (w/i) Within
W/M (w/m) Weight and/or measurement.
W-A, W/A,WAF West Africa, (coast)
WAG. West Asia gulf
Water Drive An important task to maintain pressure in the reservoir.
Water Separation Plant see Dehydration Plant.
Wax Paraffin wax which may cause production problems if condensed in production pipelines or in the valves.
WB Water ballast, waybill.
WCA, West Coast Africa.
WCCOM (WICCON) Whether (in) customs cleared (clearance) or not
WCNA West Coast of North America.
WCSA West coast of South America
WCUK West Coast United Kingdom.
WCUS West Coast United States.
WCYO.(wcyo) What Can You Offer.(in seeking/and or offering in chartering Bix
WCYP.(wcyp) What Can You Propose(in seeking/and or proposing in chartering Bix
WD (wd) Working days
WE/EI West Britain/East Ireland.
WECON Whether entered (in) Customs of not.
Well-Head Heavy and strong construction installed on the surface string or conductor pipe as foundation for further pressure regulating equipment.
WEST Western Europe.
WFA With following alterations
WFTU World Federation of Trade Unions
WHD Per working (workable) hatch per day.
WHTC Wordscale—hours, terms and conditions.
WIBON Whether In Berth Or Not
WIFPON Whether in free pratique or not
Wildcatting Speculative well drilling.
WIPON Whether in Port Or Not.
WLTHC Waterline to top of hatch coaming.
WLTOHC Water Line-To-Hatch Coaming
WNA. Winter North Atlantic loadline mark.
WOB Washed overboard.
WOG (wog) Without Guarantee
Workover Programme for actions to increase/stimulate production from a well.
Worldscale In the tanker segment of shipping, nearly all trip-chartering is done on the basis of the freight-rate system Worldscale (W), which is a method of calculation of payment for the transport of oil by ships, for a single or several consecutive voyages. Worldscale is a table giving the amount of dollars per ton oil for each of a number of standard routes. The rates listed in the table - the socalled flat rates - are termed Worldscale 100 (W100). Large tankers need a lower W than smaller vessels to make a profit. The flat rate is the rate per ton which gives a standard vessel (at present a 75,000 dwt. tanker) earnings of USD 12,000 per day on a T/C-basis for the stipulated voyage. If the flat rate is USD 10.- per metric ton, the rate level at W50 will be 50 per cent of the base rate at W100, i.e. USD 5.00 per ton. The flat rate W100 should make a profit for the "standard vessel", regardless of the voyage for which the ship is chartered. Worldscale is revised annually, and the calculations include both fixed and variable expenses. The purpose of the Worldscale is to enable both owner and charterer to compare easily the returns on alternative voyages.
WP Weather Permitting
WPC World Petroleum Congress
WPD Weather Permitting Day
WRIC Wire Rods In Coils
WS Worldscale( i.e Tanker Freight Schedule)
WSHTC or WHTC Worldscale Hours Terms and Conditions.
WSNP Weather And Safe Navigation Permitting
WT; W/TS Wing tanks
WTO World Trade Organization
WTS Working time saved.
WTSBE (Also, WTSBENDS). Working time saved both ends
WTSV Well Testing and Service Vessel
WVNS Within Vessel's natural segregation
WW Weather Working
WW World Wide.
WWAWIWL Worldwide and always within Institute Warranty Limits
WWD Weather Working Day
WWDSHEX Weather working days, Sundays and holidays excepted.(Excluded)
WWF Waterside Workers' Federation
WWR; W W Ready. When, Where, Ready == Refering to a position where a vessel will be handed over to buyers or will be delivered on to/redelivered off of time-charter
WWWW (W/W/W/W) WCCON; WIFPON; WIPON; WIBON;(wccon;wifpon;wipon;wibon.)--Refering in the main terms C/P negotiations, how NOR are to be given or when laytime should starts/commences - In a congestion ports, charterers should think carefully about these terms, as owners usually seeks these provisions (4 X W ) to cover themselves.
X (Xray) Stop carrying out your intentions and watch for my signals
X Shex. Sundays and holidays excepted
XS In excess of.
Y (Yankee) I am dragging anchor; I am carrying mails
YAR; YA or Y/A (RULES) York Antwerp Rules.
Z (Zulu)To be used to address or call shore stations; Require a tug
A - Alfa (or Alpha)
B - Bravo
C - Charlie
D - Delta
E - Echo
F - Foxtrot
G - Golf
H - Hotel
I - India
J - Juliett
K - Kilo
L - Lima
M - Mike
N - November
O - Oscar
P - Papa
Q - Quebec
R - Romeo
S - Sierra
T - Tango
U - Uniform
V - Victor
W - Whiskey
X - X-ray
Y - Yankee
Z - Zulu
Charterparty Subjects (Proviso) – Fixed on Subject
When a firm offer is made and accepted, it may be subject to something else happening before negotiations can become a fixture, i.e. a legally binding contract. This ‘subject’ (or proviso) is an indication that the main parts of the business have been agreed upon, but there are still some details to be finalized. Shipbrokers should avoid peppering the ‘main terms’ with too many ‘subjects’ before the final contract can be concluded as a ‘fixture’. However, some ‘subjects’ (i.e. provisos) are necessary, the important ones being:
1 subject to owners’ approval of the charterers;
2 subject to the charterers’ approval of the owners;
3 subject to the cargo shippers’ or receivers’ approval of the owners or of the vessel;
4 subject to the Board of Directors’ approval of the fixture;
5 Subject To Enough Merchandise (i.e. cargo) being available – known as
STEM (or strangely but most usually as ‘subject STEM’);
6 subject details, i.e. there is no fixture until all the details have been agreed: (except in US LAW);
7 Subject Open. Subject to the vessel being available to be negotiated and fixed.
These ‘subjects’ are to be declared by a given time or within a specific period after fixing the main terms and the details.
Under English Law there is no fixture until all the subjects are lifted therefore, as far as an owner is concerned, it is important that there is a time limit on the subjects.